OUTSTANDING OCEANGOING SHIPS OF 1988

MARITIME REPORTER'S annual feature "Outstanding Oceangoing Ships of 1988" is a review of some of the most notable oceangoing commercial vessels constructed during the year by some of the world's most technologically advanced shipyards. The newbuildings have been selected by the editorial staff of MR /EN on the basis of their outstanding designs, excellent fuel economy, sophisticated equipment and machinery, noteworthy performance and versatile service characteristics.

AMORELLA Brodosplit This year, Yugoslavian shipbuild er Brodosplit delivered the 37,500- gt Amorella, the first of two new generation Baltic cruise ferries, to owners SF Line for operation by Viking Line on the Turku-Mariehamn- Stockholm service route.

The 2,200-passenger-capacity ferry, which also can accommodate 620 cars/53 trucks, has an overall length of 555-1/2 feet, breadth of 90-1/2 feet, depth of 28 feet and draft of 19-1/2 feet. With a deadweight of 2,800 metric tons, the Amorella is powered by four SEMT Pielstick- Jadanbrod 12PC2-6V/400E diesel engines rated at 7,965 hp each. The 12-deck vessel, which has 565 passenger cabins, can reach speeds in excess of 21 knots.

The order for the Amorella and her sister ship, which is expected to be delivered in the spring of next year, represents an important breakthrough for Brodosplit into the passenger ferry building sector.

One outstanding feature of the Amorella is that 90 percent of her passengers will have berths, whereas current generation Baltic ferries on the route provide only about 60 percent of the passengers with berths.

The outfitting of the Amorella's public spaces was subcontracted to Danish company Aalborg Vaerft.

The Amorella is expected to replace the 1980-built Rosella.

AUTO DIANA Daewoo In July, Daewoo Shipbuilding & Heavy Machinery Ltd. of South Korea, delivered the last of four Roll-On/Roll-Off (RO/RO) pure car/truck carriers, the Auto Diana, to Pan Ocean Shipping Co., South Korea.

The car carrier has an overall length of about 654-1/2 feet, beam of 106 feet and design draft of 27 feet. The Auto Diana is one of the largest RO/RO ships built by Daewoo, with a capacity of about 5,800 standard car units.

Propulsion is provided by a single MAN B&W-KHIC 6S60MC diesel engine with a maximum output of 12,840 bhp at 102 rpm, driving a fixed pitch propeller manufactured by Hyundai Engine & Machinery Co. (HEMCO). Her service speed is 18 knots and fuel consumption is 33.7 tons per day.

The Auto Diana features remote control, automation, and monitoring/ alarm equipment for 24-hour unattended machinery space operation during normal seagoing conditions.

While the engine room is arranged centrally at the after end of the ship, the cargo space above it has been optimized by placing the exhaust casing and funnel on the extreme starboard side.

Three Hyundai Electric Engineering Co. (HEECO) 750-kw diesel generators supply electric power and 100-kw generator is additionally installed for emergency. For better harbor maneuverability, a Lips bowthruster driven by a 950-kw electric motor has been installed.

The wheelhouse is arranged forward to improve visibility.

Steam is produced by an Osaka oil-fired boiler. With the main engine running at normal load while at sea, steam is generated by an Osaka exhaust gas boiler.

Extensive model tests and studies led to the improved and innovative design of the 13-car deck carrier.

The Auto Diana's design includes two liftable decks, car deck space divided into five compartments by transverse bulkheads and gas-tight decks.

One quarter stern ramp and side ramps located at amidships are designed and arranged to offer operational flexibility for vehicle carrying service. More specifically, the stern ramp and No. 7 deck are both strengthened for bulldozer transportation.

For easier car loading, one center line pilla system is installed, as well as a double spiral internal ramp way system.

The fundamental design concept for the Auto Diana class ships is to obtain high cargo capacity, easy operation, good flexibility and high reliability.

CGM LA PEROUSE Samsung In September, Samsung Shipbuilding & Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., of South Korea, delivered the 2,525-TEU advanced containership CGM La Perouse for use in the Europe/Australasia trade.

With an overall length of 750.3 feet, molded breadth of 105.6 feet, molded depth of 61.6 feet and design draft of 34.4 feet, the CGM La Perouse is the mainstay of Compagnie Generale Maritime's participation in the Anzecs consortium. She was ordered from Samsung Heavy Industries about two years ago at a price of around $38 million. The 41,900-dwt cellular vessel sailed from the Koje Island yard crewed by a 17-man complement of French nationals.

The crew will be reduced to 15 once all on board have become familiar with the complex control and monitoring systems.

Minimum crewing considerations and a drive for efficiency gains in every sector are reflected in the sophistication of the shipboard operating systems—and notably the extent which automation has been applied. The adoption of an optimized hull form, with an asymmetric afterbody and highly skewed propeller, helps towards the economy of the design. According to tests, her asymmetric body shape may yield an energy savings of as much as 7 percent. The CGM La Perouse is reportedly the largest vessel ever built to have an asymmetric body design.

Efforts to apply restricted manning scales have been considerably helped by the dual certification system— in existence for some years in France—whereby watchkeeping offficers are qualified in both deck and engineering disciplines.

The CGM La Perouse is powered by a seven-cylinder, two-stroke Sulzer 7RTA84 diesel engine built by Hyundai Engineering & Machinery Co. (HEMCO). The engine, which has the largest bore design of Sulzer's RTA family, has a rating of 28,500 bhp at 90 rpm. Daily fuel consumption is estimated to be 70.7 tons when the engine is operating at 24,650 bhp at 85.7 rpm. She is fitted with a highly skewed, fixed-pitch Stone Manganese propeller.

Electrical power is provided by two Wartsila-Ssangyong 4R32D diesel engines each driving a 1,350-kw HEECO alternator and two other six-cylinder engines driving two 2,000-kw HEECO alternators.

The CGM La Perouse is fitted with a Tokyo Keiki PR7000-type autopilot and two JRC M34 Series ARPAs. Navigation equipment also includes the JRC SNA-91 Total Navigation System.

CASTILLO DE BUTRON Astilleros Espanoles The Puerto Real yard of Spanish state-owned Astilleros Espanoles S.A. (AESA) delivered the outstanding bulk carrier Castron de Butron to her owners Empresa National Elcano during 1988.

Classed by Lloyd's Register of Shipping, the 787-foot Castillo de Butron has a beam of 118 feet (which means she cannot navigate through the Panama Canal), maximum draft of 45 feet, trial speed of 14 knots, and estimated gross tonnage of 45,100 gt. She is powered by a new generation, long-stroke Sulzer- AESA 6RTA62 diesel engine rated at 14,940 hp at 102 rpm, which burns catalytic fuel oil. Electricity is supplied by two 725-kw generators driven by a 1,050-hp diesel engine at 720 rpm, one 725-kw generator driven by the main engine, and one 300- kw emergency generator driven by a 450-hp diesel engine at 1,000 rpm.

Her auxiliary engines are designed to burn high viscosity fuel oil with the use of an oil-mixing system and sophisticated combustion system.

She is fitted with raiseable and moveable "piggy-back" hatchway covers.

To conserve energy, the Castron de Butron's air conditioning system uses heat recovered from the main engine air coolers as a heat source.

Other state-of-the-art equipment and systems that have been incorporated into the Castron de Butron's design include: fixed cleaning systems for the holds; bilge draining systems with large alternating pumps; totally automatic design (Lloyd's Register of Shipping and Bureau Veritas rules); a self-polishing paint system on the hull and dry and floodable holds painted with epoxy pitch; an impressed cathodic protection system; and the latest navigation and communication systems.

CHARLES B. RENFREW Mitsubishi In August, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (MHI) completed and delivered the Charles B. Renfrew, the second of a series of two 78,000- dwt lightering tankers for the Chev- ron Transport Corporation at its Nagasaki Shipyard.

The Charles B. Renfrew along with her sister ship, the R. Hal Dean, are used as lightering tankers for VLCCs and engaged in shuttle service between Pascagoula, Miss., and about 50 sea miles offshore in the Gulf of Mexico.

The Charles B. Renfrew has an overall length of 784-1/2 feet, molded breadth of 122 feet, molded depth of 58.3 feet and design draft of 36 feet. The 44,840-gross-ton vessel is powered by two MAN B&WMitsubishi 6L 52/55B diesel engines, with a maximum continuous rating of 6,700 hp at 450 rpm each.

Because she is fitted with a Ka- MeWa-Mitsubishi controllable pitch propeller, the operation of the Charles B. Renfrew is simple. The CP propeller makes it unnecessary to operate the main engines in the reverse mode and also allows the engines to be operated with a constant revolution.

Both the R.Hal Dean and Charles B. Renfrew feature energy and manpower saving equipment. For example, in order to improve efficiency and reliability of the lightering service, a lightering hose crane and fender davits have been installed. To improve operation in narrow seaways, both lightering tankers are equipped with bowthrusters and Schilling rudders. Another feature is a Mitsubishi Automated Cargo Control and Monitoring System, which cuts time during the vessel's frequent loading/unloading opera- tions during shuttle service.

For the monitoring of the main engine system, the vessel is provided with a monitoring system with a microcomputer which meets the ABS requirement for "unattended machinery space." An automatic operation control and monitoring system has also been used for the boiler and inert gas system and functions in connection with the automated cargo control and monitoring system.

As for navigation equipment, the vessel is equipped with a Decca Navigator which contains functions of the Loran-C, Omega and satellite navigation. Other equipment includes an automatic chart plotter connected to the Decca Navigator, a Navtex receiver, ARPA, doppler speedlog and docking sonar.

CROWN ODYSSEY Meyer Werft The luxurious 40,000-grt cruise ship Crown Odyssey was delivered by the Papenburg, West Germany, shipyard of Meyer Werft to Royal Cruise Line of Piraeus, Greece.

The 616-foot cruise ship has a molded breadth of 92-1/2 feet and draft on summer freeboard of 22.7 feet. She has 12 decks, and is able to carry 1,221 passengers in 526 cabins.

The Crown Odyssey also has 199 crew cabins and a complement of 443.

The Crown Odyssey is powered by an innovative "father and son" four-engine plant consisting of two Krupp MaK 8M601 "father" engines with an output of 10,880 hp at 400 rpm each and two Krupp MaK 6M35 "son" engines, each developing 3,604 hp at 720 rpm. The plant produces a total of about 29,000 hp and a service speed of about 22 knots. The engine output is being transmitted via double reduction Renk gears with integrated lamella couplings to a KaMeWa controllable pitch propeller system. The main and auxiliary engines are designed to operate on heavy fuel oil IFO 600.

Electrical power is provided by four Krupp MaK diesel generating sets with a total generator capacity of 12,500 kva as well as one emergency generator with a capacity of 760 kva.

Two semi-spade rudders directly fitted behind the controllable pitch propeller and two bowthrusters ensure good maneuverability of the Crown Odyssey. Additionally, she is fitted with Ross Industrie stabilizers which reduce her roll motion by 90 percent at a speed of 17.5 knots.

On board the Crown Odyssey there are a total of 11 public rooms including the "Seven Continents Restaurant" on deck 6 which seats 640 persons. The other public spaces are situated on the Odyssey, Lido and Horizon decks (7th, 8th and 11th decks). The Monte Carlo Court, which is located on the Odyssey Deck, includes a casino, bar and several boutiques. Forward of this area there is the Odyssey Show Lounge with submergible stage and seating accommodation for 500 per- sons. Aft of the Court there is the Yacht Club, which has a 280-person capacity with an illuminated dance floor and an ample buffet.

The Crown Odyssey has a swimming pool on her 1st deck, as well as a fitness center, two saunas, two massage rooms, ample sun deck space and a beauty palour. She also has two whirlpools located on the Penthouse Deck (10th deck).

ETERNAL ACE Mitsui Engineering In April, the 5,563-vehicle capacity car carrier Eternal Ace was delivered by the Tamano Works of Mitsui Engineering & Shipbuilding Co., Ltd., to her Panamanian owners Perennial Motors Transport Inc.

The Eternal Ace has an overall length of 654.4 feet, breadth of 106 feet, molded depth of 110 feet and draft of 32 feet. The 55,380-grosston vessel is powered by a single MAN B&W-Mitsui 7S60MC diesel engine rated at 15,900 hp at 95 rpm.

She has a maximum speed of over 21 knots.

To increase her vehicle-carrying capacity, the space between the Eternal Ace's deck above the mooring deck in the bow section and the No. 1 car deck has been enclosed.

Additionally, two of her 14 stowage decks are movable to accommodate larger vehicles.

For more efficient mooring operation, the Eternal Ace is equipped with a bowthruster.

Classed by Nippon Kaiji Kyokai, the car carrier, which has a complement of 32, has a collision-prevention system as well as standard nautical equipment to insure safe navigation.

She also is equipped with a satellite communication system for worldwide communication.

KUNISAKI MARU Hitachi Zosen In March, Hitachi Zosen's Ariake Works delivered the large ore carrier Kunisaki Maru to her owners Friend Shipping.

The 227,960-dwt ore carrier has an overall length of 1,033 feet, breadth of 170-1/2 feet, depth of 77 feet, and full load draft of 59 feet.

The 110,039-gross ton Kunisaki Maru is powered by a single MAN B&W-Hitachi Zosen 8S70MC diesel engine that has an maximum continuous output of 23,000 hp at 88 rpm. The engine is designed to permit the use of low-grade fuel oil up to 6,000 sec Redwood. She has a speed of about 16 knots.

Besides her energy-efficient main engine, the Kunisaki Maru incorporates a number of fuel-saving features including: a Hitachi-Zosendeveloped HZ nozzle for improved propulsion efficiency; a Hitachi Zosen- developed echo turbo-generator plant, ETC-2 system; and selfcleaning antifouling paint used to reduce drag and maintenance.

Classed by the Japanese classification society NK, the Kunisaki Maru's cargo-handling and mooring equipment as well as automated engine room facilities are engineered to save manpower and energy. She is crewed by a complement of 26.

MCDERMOTT DERRICK BARGE 50 NESL The world's largest monohull crane vessel, McDermott Marine Construction's new McDermott Derrick Barge 50, has entered service in the Gulf of Mexico after undergoing final outfitting at McDermott Shipyard in New Orleans, La. The crane ship was built by British Shipbuilders subsidiary North East Shipbuilders Ltd.

(NESL) at the firm's North Sands, Sunderland, yard.

A self-propelled dynamically positioned monohull vessel, DB 50 is designed for worldwide operation in a variety of marine construction roles. She is 495 feet long and 151 feet wide with a depth from keel to main deck of 41 feet.

The ship's main revolving crane is a Clyde Model 80-262-49-33. Its components include a fully active computerized motion suppression and heel compensation system. The crane has a 344.5-foot boom with the main block at 262.5 feet. It is mounted on an 80-foot diameter tub at the centerline aft of the vessel. At full revolving, it has a rated capacity of 3,527 short tons at 82 feet. Her slewing capacity over the stern is 4,189 short tons at a 100-foot radius.

The Clyde crane has a fixed rating over the stern of 4,400 short tons at 121-foot radius.

Five 2,700-kw, 6,600-V, threephase, 60-cycle Brush Electrical Machines alternators powered by five Allen Model S37 nine-cylinder heavy-fuel diesel engines provide ample power for the vessel's propulsion, dynamic positioning and crane. Each of the four main vertical- drive Brush Electrical propulsion motors drives a Stone Vickers azimuth thruster with an MCR of 2,400 kw at 880 rpm. Dynamic positioning is controlled by a GEC Uni- Control Duplex DP System rated for all modes of construction work, including DP diving operations. A GEC Tams 80 mooring system mon- itors position and anchor lines and has computer-assisted thruster control.

She can reach speeds of 11 knots.

The firefighting capacity of the DB 50 consists of four fire monitors located on the main crane mast.

Each monitor is capable of sending a 7,900 gpm stream of seawater to a point 500 feet away to a maximum height of 230 feet. The ability to provide such a great volume of water, coupled with the mobility supplied by the dynamic positioning system, allows the DB 50 to furnish excellent firefighting capability to the Gulf of Mexico.

For pile driving, the vessel is outfitted with a Johnston 2,000-hp diesel- fired boiler capable of producing 69,000-pounds of steam an hour at 250 psi. The boiler capacity is sufficient to operate the largest pile driving hammers in use, including the Vulcan 6300.

Living quarters on DB 50 are equipped to accommodate 237 people. All quarters are centrally heated and air conditioned.

Lounges, cinema, game rooms and gymnasium are provided for offduty personnel. One dining room, one cafeteria-style galley and complete laundry and hospital facilities are provided. Ample offices and a conference room are allocated for customers.

She has a deck area of 30,000 square feet and a cargo capacity of 20,000 tons.

McDermott is leasing the ship from Lombard Initial Leasing Ltd., which purchased the vessel from British Shipbuilders.

MICOPERI 7000 Fincantieri-CNI Fincantieri Cantieri Navali Italiani SpA's Montefalcone shipyard in Trieste, Italy, achieved an important milestone when it delivered reportedly the world's largest semisubmersible crane vessel, the Micoperi 7000, to her owners Micoperi SpA of Milan.

The Micoperi 7000 has two hulls, each with a length of 541 feet and a beam of 108 feet, supporting a 574 by 285-foot platform. From her line of construction, she has a freshwater docking draft of 32 feet, a transit draft of 34.4 feet, an operational light load draft of 65.6 feet, and an operational maximum heavy load draft of 94.1 feet.

The self-propelled barge's propulsion and electrical needs are supplied by a total of 10 medium-speed Grandi Motori Trieste (GMT) diesel engines—eight 12-cylinder GMT A420 engines and two six-cylinder GMT A420 units. The eight 12- cylinder engines each drive an Ansaldo 60Hz, lOkv alternator rated at 5,600 kw for use at sea. For port use, two 2,800 kw alternators are driven by the two GMT six-cylinder diesels.

All engines produce a total output of 55.62 MW or 75,570 bhp. The Micoperi 7000 is also equipped with an emergency 1,100-kw generator driven by a GMT eight-cylinder BL230 engine rated at 1,300 kw (1,766 bhp).

She features two bow-mounted 7,000-lifting-capacity America Hoist swivel cranes built under license by Officine Mecchaniche Reggiane of Italy.

Dynamic positioning and maneuvering is provided eight azimuth thrusters with fixed blades and propeller nozzle and two transverse tunnel thrusters with fixed blades placed in the forward area. Propulsion is ensured by the use of four non-retractable fixed-blade azimuthal propellers arranged astern.

The Micoperi 7000 can accommodate a crew of 800 in five suites with dayrooms, 35 single berth, 335 double berth and 30 triple berth cabins.

She has two dining rooms, a swim-ming pool, theater, lounges, library and gym.

The Micoperi 7000 can be used in a variety of operations including the moving and installation of offshore oil drilling platforms. The crane barge is equipped with a sophisticated computer-controlled Kongsberg Albatross dynamic positioning systems and an automatic ballast system.

NILS DACKE Schichau Seebeckwerft Schichau Seebeckwerft AG of Bremerhaven, West Germany, delivered the world's largest railway/ freight ferry, the 581-foot Nils Dacke, to Rederi AB Swedcarrier, the pool-partner of Hamburg-based TT-Line.

The Nils Dacke, with a molded breadth of 84-1/2 feet, draft of about 20 feet, tonnage of about 24,000 and deadweight of 7,800 tons, is powered by two main propulsion plants consisting of four MAN B&W main engines. Each main propulsion plant consists of a MAN B&W 6L40/45 diesel, with an output of 3,170 kw at 524 rpm, and a MAN B&W 8L40/45 diesel engine, with an output of 4,230 kw at 524 rpm. The total power for the two main propulsion plants (all four engines) is 14,800 kw. For maneuverability, the vessel is equipped with Lips variable pitch propellers and Frydenbo rudder plants. She has a service speed of about 18 knots.

The all-around combicarrier entered service on the TT-Line route between Travemunde and Trelleborg, Sweden. Her three decks are interconnected by internal ramps, and she load and discharge via a stern ramp.

The lower deck, or combi deck, is equipped with 910 meters of rail length distributed on six tracks, allowing for the transportation of 36 long-type railway wagons or 75 rail wagons of average size.

On the two upper decks, there is space for about 100 trucks/trailers.

When not in use for rail cargo, the lower deck can accommodate an additional 60 trucks/trailers.

Furthermore, the Nils Dacke will have accommodations for 300 passengers in 122 cabins, a restaurant, lounge/bar, cinema and conference rooms. The crew complement will be about 40.

NORTH KING J J . Sietas This year, the West German shipbuilder J.J. Sietas delivered the 3,056-dwt RO/RO vessel North King to Antares Shipping of London.

The 1,905-gross-ton ship has an overall length of 275-1/2 feet, breadth of 52-1/2 feet, summer draft of 17-1/2 feet and container capacity of 219 TEUs. Her bulk cargo capacity is 3,920 m3 and bale cargo capacity is 3,770 m3. Her propulsion power is provided by a Wartsila Vasa 6R32D diesel engine with an mcr of 1,676 hp at 750 rpm. The main engine is fitted with a BBC VTR304 exhaust gas turbocharger.

Other propulsion equipment includes a Renk Tacke reduction gear and a Lips four-bladed controllablepitch propeller.

Electrical power is supplied by a shaft generator rated at 360 kw.

Additional power is supplied by three generators driven by Caterpillar 34508 DITA diesel engines.

For maneuverability, the North King is fitted with a Sietas flap Schilling rudder, as well as a Jastram bowthruster. The Jastram thruster is rated at 300 kw.

Four watertight tranverse bulk heads separate the hull of the North King into fire sections. Her forward section houses the forepeak, BBC fridge compressors and Jastram bowthruster. Accommodations for her crew of 12 and located in the second section, while the third section contains the hold. The fourth section contains the engine room.

The North King is equipped with two Neunfelder Maschienfabrik cranes, with safe working loads of 30 and 35 tons at outreaches of 79 and 65 feet, respectively. Other deck machinery was supplied by Steen.

ODEN Gotaverken Arendal In the last quarter of 1988, shipbuilder Gotaverken Arendal AB (GVA) of Gothenburg, Sweden, delivered Sweden's newest and most modern icebreaker, the 353-1/2-foot Oden, to her owners, Svenskt Isbrytarkonsortium KB, Stockholm, Sweden.

Designed and developed by GVA in collaboration with Canadian Marine Drilling Ltd. of Canada, the Oden represents an enormous advance in global icebreaker technology.

She has a beam at midships of 82 feet, maximum displacement of 13,000 tons, and draft operation range of 23 to 28 feet. Her beam over reamer is over 96 feet, making her, if not the widest, than one of the widest icebreakers in the world. The Oden is powered by four mediumspeed, e i g h t - c y l i n d e r Sulzer ZAL40S diesel engines with a total output of 24,500 hp. She is equipped with two dual input single output Renk Tacke reduction gears and fitted with a pair of controllable-pitch Lips propellers in nozzles. Electric power is supplied by four mediumspeed six-cylinder Sulzer AT25H diesel engines.

The powerful Oden has a wide spoon-shaped bow which is relatively shorter and more blunt than that of conventional icebreakers. Additionally, along both sides of her intermediate link, between her bow and midships section, she is fitted with reamers, an oblique bulb-like structure, which enables the Oden to open a 96-foot-wide channel through ice, despite having only an 82-foot beam at midships. The Oden is able to break 1.8 meters (about 6 feet) of level ice at 3 knots.

Her turning radius is one ship length in 0.8 meters (about 2-1/2 feet) of ice.

The Oden, which replaces the 1957-built Oden, has standard quarters for 48 people and an operating crew of 26.

PRESIDENT TRUMAN & PRESIDENT POLK HDW & Bremer V u l k an During 1988, American President Lines, Oakland, Calif., took delivery of the five of its new C-10 Class containerships from the West German s h i p y a r d s of Howaldswerke Deutsche Werft (HDW) and Bremer Vulkan AG, for use in its Pacific Basin service. HDW built three of the ships, while Bremer Vulkan delivered the remaining two.

The first ship delivered by HDW was christened the President Truman, while the first C-10 Class vessel delivered by Bremer Vulkan was the President Polk. The containerships each have an overall length of 902 feet, beam of 129 feet, maximum draft of 41 feet, displacement of 75,862 long tons and a deadweight of 53,648 long tons. Classed by the American Bureau of Shipping,' 1 E, Container Carrier'MS + ACCU, the Truman and Polk are propelled to speeds of up to 24 knots by some of the most powerful diesel engines ever built. Each C-10 is propelled by a single 57,000-hp, 12- cylinder Sulzer diesel engine. The engine was designed in Switzerland and built in South Korea under license, and is approximately 71 feet high and 45 feet long and weighs about 1,700 tons. Each of the 12 cylinders measures nearly three feet in diameter and travels about 8 feet per stroke. The piston and rod assembly weighs more than 6 tons. For the power it generates, this engine is among the most efficient in terms of fuel consumption.

The fuel-efficient C-10 Class ships, which are each capable of carrying 4,300 TEU containers, are the first container-carrying vessels to have a "post-Panamax" beam, meaning their width exceeds the limitations of the Panama Canal. As with the development of the widebodied aircraft, the increased capacity and efficiency requirements for these vessels led to the new design concept.

"These are the first ships to be designed specifically for trans-Pacific service," said Timothy J.

Rhein, APL president. "By removing the limitation on the ships' beam, we were able to significantly increase their capacity, while optimizing their speed, fuel efficiency and stability." The three sister ships of the Truman and Polk, the President Kennedy and President Jackson (built by HDW) and President Adams, built by Bremerhaven-based Brem- er Vulkan, were also delivered during 1988 and phased into APL's Pacific Basin service.

ROYAL VIKING SUN Wartsila Marine By the end of this year, the Turku shipyard of Wartsila Marine Industries Inc. will have delivered one of the world's most luxurious cruise vessels, when the Royal Viking Sun joins the fleet of Royal Viking Line.

At 36,000 gross tons, the new Royal Viking Sun will be almost a third larger than existing Royal Viking ships, yet will carry only 760 passengers. She will have larger cabins, more open deck space and more public room space per passenger than most other cruise vessels— either afloat or under construction.

"This will be the most luxurious ship in the world in keeping with Royal Viking Line's premier position in the cruise industry," said Einar Kloster, chairman of Kloster Cruise.

The Royal Viking Sun will have an overall length of 669 feet, molded breadth of 95 feet and draft of 23 feet. Her propulsion system will feature four 8-cylinder ZA40 Wartsila- Sulzer main diesel engines developing a total of 28,161 hp. She will have a speed of 21-1/2 knots.

Many of the traditional features found in other Royal Viking cruise ships have been retained in the design of the Royal Viking Sun. For example, the ship features an unobstructed Promenade Deck circling the ship and her main dining room has been designed to accommodate all of the passengers at a single seating.

Almost 40 percent of the Royal Viking Sun's 380 cabins are deluxe staterooms, each with a private verandah.

After official inauguration cruises, the Royal Viking Sun will set sail on a 100-day around the world cruise on January 8, from San Francisco, ending up in Fort Lauderdale, Fla., on April 16.

The Royal Viking Sun's firefighting equipment, hospital and medical equipment, welding gas central and distribution system, electrical welding equipment, high pressure cleaning equipment, gas meters and measuring equipment were all supplied by Unitor Ships Service of Norway.

SEAWARD Wartsila Marine Besides delivering the outstanding cruise ship Royal Viking Sun, busy Finnish shipbuilder Wartsila Marine Industries Inc.'s Turku yard also completed its biggest passenger vessel to date, the 1,800-passenger Seaward. She is the first new generation cruise ship built at the yard.

Delivered to Kloster Cruise Ltd., the 708-1/2-foot Seaward has a beam of 95 feet, maximum draft of 23 feet and gross tonnage of 42,300.

The vessel is powered by four eightcylinder Sulzer ZA40 medium-speed diesel engines which produce a total of 28,800 bhp. She can cruise at speeds of more than 21 knots.

Shaft alternators driven by power take-offs (PTOs) from the two main gearboxes provide electricity while maneuvering, and also supply a part of the ship's at-sea auxiliary power requirements.

The vessel, which is manned by a crew of 600, is operated by Norwegian Cruise Line, Miami, Fla., a subsidiary of Kloster Cruise Ltd., on seven-day cruises in the Caribbean.

In addition to the 774 passenger cabins on board, there is ample public space, including three large restaurants, three night clubs, seven bars, a casino, spacious shops, a beauty salon, saunas, a fitness center, two swimming pools, whirlpools, a laundrette, a hospital and several rooms reserved for various entertainment games.

The Seaward is fitted with advanced firefighting equipment, including fire extinguishers, fire hoses, and firemen's outfits, along with a modern welding gas central and distribution system supplied by Unitor Ships Service. Unitor also supplied an owner's supply medical package that included medicine and medical equipment.

SHOUSHONE SPIRIT 3. Maj This year, Yugoslavian shipbuilder 3. Maj's Rijeka shipyard delivered its largest ship ever,the 110,000-dwt tanker Shoushone Spirit. She is the first of three of her type ordered by VSSI Carriers of Liberia.

Intended for the carriage of crude oil of up to 10.5 t/cu.m. specific gravity, the Shoushone Spirit has an overall length of 809-1/2 feet, breadth of 139.3 feet, and design draft of 47.3 feet. Her main propulsion engine is a slow-speed, reversible turbocharged diesel Sulzer- 3.Maj 5RTA72 unit that has a maximum continuous rating of 13,852 hp at 78 rpm. The engine is designed to operate on both diesel and heavy fuel up to 420 cSt at 50 degrees C (4000 Redwood at 38 degrees C).

She has a service speed of 14.6 knots.

The tanker is constructed in accordance with the rules of Lloyd's Register of Shipping, for the class + 100A1 +LMC, UMS, IGS, OIL TANKER. Her degree of automation conforms to the rules and requirements of the classification society for unattended machinery space.

The materials used for her shell and structure are shipbuilding steel and high tensile steel.

Electrical power is provided by three diesel generators of about 1,050 kva each. The diesel generator engines are four-stroke, turbocharged, water-cooled models, directly coupled to the generators, and can be operated on diesel, as well as mixed heavy fuel up to 420 cSt at 50 degrees C (4000 Redwood at 38 degrees C). One emergency diesel generator rated at 200 kva at 1,800 rpm has also been installed.

The Shoushone Spirit is fitted with two 15-ton-capacity hydraulic slewing cranes, intended for handling manifold connection hoses for loading/discharging oil cargo.

The ship's 16 cargo tanks have a total capacity of 123,000 cubic meters with additional capacity of 2,500 cubic meters in her slop tanks.

Each of the four segregations is equipped with a separate steam turbine driven centrifugal cargo pump employing dry saturated steam at 16 bars pressure. The total cargo discharge capacity amounts to 8,000 cubic meter/hour at cargo density of 1.025 t/cubic meters and 1 cSt vsicosity at 50 degrees C. The cargo pumps net positive suction height amounts to 120 meters. Cargo heating is provided by steam cargo heaters using the steam pressure of 8 bars, and providing the cargo temperature of 66 degrees C, even when surrounding air temperature drops to 2 degrees C, and at sea temperature is 5 degrees C.

TORM MARGRETHE Burmeister & Wain This year, Burmeister & Wain Skibsvaerft A/S, Copenhagen, Denmark, delivered the 750-foot product tanker Torm Margrethe to the Danish shipping company Torm, under a contract from K/S Margretheholm, a partnership of Danish tax investors.

The single-screw tanker was the eighth in a series of Panamax product tankers, type CPT54E, built by Burmeister & Wain. She has a beam of 106 feet and draft of 38 feet, and is powered by a single five-cylinder two-stroke MAN B&W Diesel L70MCE main engine, which develops 10,900 bhp at 84 rpm. She is fitted with a four-bladed propeller with a diameter of 23.6 feet. She has an average speed of 15.1 knots at a loaded design draft/ballasted condition of 90 percent.

In her engine room, the Torm Margrethe has four auxiliary engines— two six-cylinder MAN B&W T23LH-4E diesel engines each direct coupled to a 600-kw generator and two eight-cylinder MAN B&W L28/32 diesel engines each coupled to a hydraulic pump of 1,680 kw.

One is also coupled to a 1,200-kw generator.

The bridge is equipped with the modern navigation equipment such as a direction finder, radar, satellite communication system, satellite navigator, autopilot and gyrocompass.

The bridge is also equipped with remote control equipment for the propulsion machinery to allow for unmanned engine room operation.

She is fitted with 12 cargo tanks (six on the port and six on the starboard side). She is capable of carrying up to 12 different oil products and chemicals at one time. She is classed and registered as +1A1 "tanker for oil and caustic soda, COW, EO, INERT," and in accordance with the"Tanker Safety and Pollution Prevention 1978." WALTER S. DIEHL Avondale The U.S. Navy fleet oiler Walter S. Diehl (T-AO-193), the fifth in a series of 18 vessels of this type, was delivered in the third quarter by Avondale Industries Inc.'s Shipyards Division, New Orleans, La.

Built with the use of modern modular construction techniques, the Walter S. Diehl is 667-1/2 feet long with a beam of 97-1/2 feet, maximum draft of 36 feet and displacement of 42,000 long tons. Her main propulsion consists of two 10- cylinder PC4.2 Colt-Pielstick diesel engines manufactured by the Fairbanks Morse Engine Division of Colt Industries, Inc.

Currently, these engines are the largest U.S.-manufactured mediumspeed diesels capable of burning either DFM or heavy fuels of up to 3,500 sec Redwood at 100 degrees F.

The engines have a fuel rate of 136 grams/metric horsepower hour. The twin-screw design of the Walter S.

Diehl provides improved directional stability, ease of control and mission reliability. The oiler is capable of speeds in excess of 20 knots.

The mission of the Walter S.

Diehl and other ships of the T-AO- 187 Class is to transport bulk products and fuel from shore depots to combatants and support forces underway.

The ships also deliver limited fleet freight, cargo, water, lube oil, mail and personnel. The new ship has a cargo capacity of 183,500 barrels of oil in 18 cargo tanks and is capable of simultaneously receiving, storing and discharging two separate grades of cargo fuel. All cargo valve and pump operations and the ship's segregated ballast system are manipulated from the cargo control center located in the ship's aft superstructure, which has an overview of the entire underway replenishment is accomplished using transfer rigs with transfer hoses suspended by a span wire automatically maintained in a constant-tension range.

The T-AO Class vessels are also capable of refueling helicopters from a vertical replenishment facility aft of the accommodation house.

YUKONG FRONTIER HHI In late June of this year, Hyundai Heavy Industries Co. Ltd. (HHI) in Korea delivered the 254,000-dwt Very Large Crude Carrier (VLCC) Yukong Frontier to her owner, Yukong Line Ltd. The ship is the standard type developed by Hyundai Shipyard, and the first in a series of three VLCCs ordered for Yukong Line.

Last year, HHI introduced a new design for for a 254,000-dwt class VLCC developed by its research institute, HMRI (Hyundai Maritime Research Institute. HMRI carried out model testing for performance prediction and performed a threedimensional finite element analysis using coarse mesh for structural analysis.

Yukong Frontier is a flush deck type ship without forecastle and has a cylindrical bow and transom stern.

The ship has six center cargo oil tanks, three pairs of side cargo oil tanks and one pair of slop tanks at her side, with a cargo oil capacity of 303,000 m3. She is able to load and discharge three different kinds of cargo oil simultaneosuly with an average cargo unloading rate of 15,000 m3/h using three main cargo pumps.

The cargo loading rate of the ship reaches approximately 20,000 m3/h through the cargo manifolds.

The Yukong Frontier has an overall length of 1,056 feet, breadth of 184 feet and design draft of 65 feet.

She is powered by a two-stroke, turbocharged, reversible type MAN B&W-Hyundai 6S80MC diesel engine developing an MCR of 22,110 bhp at 67.7 rpm and an NCR of 19,900 bhp at 65.4 rpm. Electric power is supplied by three 800-kw diesel generators and one 250-kw emergency generator.

The Yukong Frontier is equipped with both an adaptive steering autopilot system and microcomputer system for fuel and manpower savings.

Classed by ABS 1 (E), "Oil Carrier," and MS, CCU, IGS, COW, PL, PL, SBT of ABS, and +KSE, "Oil Carrier," +MKS, MA of KR, the ship has highly advanced automatic systems which enable the crew to control and monitor all essential functions with regard to the ship's operation, starters, generator power management system, etc.

Maritime Reporter Magazine, page 12,  Dec 1988 Mitsubishi 6L

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