DIESEL POWER REVIEW

Selecting the appropriate propulsion or auxiliary power system for a vessel is one of the most difficult and important tasks facing the naval architect, marine engineer and vessel owner. With so many marine diesel engines on the market—low-speed, medium-speed and high-speed units; two-stroke and four-stroke cycle designs; cross-head- and trunk-piston types; loop-scavenged styles; and conventional and opposed-piston machines—the editors of MARITIME REPORTER asked the major makers of marine diesel engines to provide information on their latest developments and advancements in the propulsion and auxiliary power field.

Free product literature is available from the manufacturers included in this review. To obtain copies of brochures and technical literature from the companies, circle the appropriate Reader Service Number(s) on the postpaid card bound in the back of this issue.

CATERPILLAR Circle 69 on Reader Service Card Caterpillar Inc., a multinational company headquartered in Peoria, 111., recently announced it has adopted two new trademarks. These marks will identify the corporation and its products and services by the two words associated with the company throughout the world—Caterpillar and Cat.

The new marks capitalize on the traditional Caterpillar and Cat names by adding a stylized triangle design incorporated into the first "A" in each word.

The "CAT" mark will be the main identifier for products and services and the dealers who sell and support them. The "CATERPILLAR" mark will identify the company, its subsidiaries, its products and services, and will double as the official corporate signature.

Caterpillar offers the 3600 Engine Family of four-cycle engines, which has a bore of 280 mm and a stroke of 300 mm. The 3600 Family, with an engine speed range of 720 to 1,000 rpm, has four members: in-line sixand eight-cylinder versions, a V-12 and a 4,500-kw continuous-rated V- 16.

After 10 years of development and over three years and 500,000 operating hours, the 3600 Family is a proven performer. Customers throughout the world are responding favorably.

Caterpillar designed the 3600 for efficient heavy fuel operation.

Heavy fuel units are operating in the Great Lakes, Canary Islands, Belgium and Brazil. The first oceangoing containership to benefit from Cat 3600 heavy fuel auxiliaries was repowered last year.

Excellent fuel consumption is achieved by using a high-pressure unit injector combined with efficient turbocharging of the laboratory- developed combustion system.

As a result, Caterpillar will guarantee specific fuel consumption dependent on fuel specifications.

A worldwide network of more than 200 dealers support Caterpillar marine propulsion systems with parts and service locations in more than 140 countries.

COOPER INDUSTRIES Circle 6 1 on Reader Service Card Superior® 2400 Series diesel engines from Cooper Industries' Energy Services Group are designed and built for electrical power generation and mechanical drive needs. They provide dependable, low-cost power in the 1,000- to 3,500-kw range at continuous rated speeds from 720 to 1,200 rpm.

The four-stroke cycle engines are offered in six- and eight-cylinder inline, and 12- and 16-cylinder V configurations with BMEP ratings from 242 psi for prime duty to 323 psi for standby service.

The 2400 Series engines are manufactured by Ajax-Superior under license from Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd. of Tokyo, Japan, a world leader in the design and development of industrial diesel engines.

Ajax-Superior is part of Cooper Industries' Energy Services Group, known worldwide as a leader in the design and manufacture of heavy-duty power and compression equipment.

CUMMINS Circle 70 on Reader Service Card Last year, Cummins Engine Company, Inc., Columbus, Ind., announced an agreement with Hawker- Siddeley and Onan whereby Cummins assumed responsibility for the Onan L Series diesel engines.

Under the agreement, which covered only the L Series diesel engines, the engine was designated the Cummins A Series.

The addition of the A Series enabled Cummins to offer diesel power for a wide variety of applications from 41 to 9,000 hp.

The Cummins A Series engine family, which opened up a number of new markets for the company, consists of three, four and six-cylinder naturally aspirated models, as well as a six-cylinder turbocharged model. These engines, which are smaller than the Cummins B Series, offer a wide power range of 41 to 120 hp at 3,600 rpm (compared to the B Series automotive rating of 105 to 186 hp at 2,800 rpm). The A is designed as an in-line, four-stroke, water-cooled engine and employs an indirect injection system. It can be used in generator set, marine auxiliary propulsion and small industrial equipment applications.

Headlining company news during the past year was the installation of Cummins engines aboard the world's largest crewboat, the 160- foot Norman McCall, built by Gulf Craft, Inc., Patterson, La. The vessel is fitted with six Cummins KTA19-M marine diesels, developing a total of 4,080 hp.

The propulsion package was supplied by Cummins Mid-South, New Orleans, La., who also supplied a Cummins Lube Oil blender. This device, designed to eliminate hardto- dispose-of dirty lube oil, traps impurities from the oil and mixes the clean oil with fuel and returns this mixture to the fuel tanks to be burned.

Other notable Cummins installations include a new 47-passenger excursion boat operating in Hawaii, which was f i t t e d with twin 6BTA5.9-M marine diesels, and a double-ended ferry, which is powered by twin Cummins NTA-855 engines developing 380 hp each at 1,800 rpm, operating in Mobile Bay, Ala.

DETROIT DIESEL Circle 62 on Reader Service Card Detroit Diesel Corporation recently introduced three new generation high-speed engines for the passenger boat, pleasure craft and marine market—the 16V-149TI, 6- 71TI and 3000 Series.

The 16V-149TI is a 16-cylinder, 149-cubic-inch-per-cylinder engine capable of producing 2,200 bhp at 2,100 rpm.

The 149 engine was first introduced in 1967. Over 15,000 Series 149 engines are in service in generator sets, and marine and other applications.

The engine is designed with a twin-section, wet-linered cylinder block, two-piece overhead camshaft, a unit fuel-injection system, individual cylinder heads, iron crosshead pistons, crankcase access plates, a two-piece crankshaft and quad water-cooled exhaust manifolds and turbochargers.

The new 6-71 is a six-cylinder, 71- cubic-inch-per-cylinder engine available in ratings of 485 bhp at 2,500 rpm and 450 bhp at 2,500 rpm.

Introduced in 1938, the new reengineered marine 6-71 engine incorporates design input from Detroit Diesel distributors servicing the marine industry. The marinized engine consists of over 80 newly designed components with a total investment of $800,000.

The turbocharged and intercooled engine is designed to be compact, and features a high capacity 24-plate oil cooler, water-cooled exhaust system, a maxi-bypass blower, a new cooling system, crankcase breather collection system, a unit fuel injection system and engine controls, and low-speed performance enhancements.

The 3000 Series marine engine represents the first product offered from the joint collaboration between Detroit Diesel Corporation and Perkins Engine Company, Ltd.

The 3000 Series is a pre-production marine engine which will be available in limited quantities beginning this fall.

The 3000 Series is a direct injection, four-cycle, eight-cylinder Vee configuration engine and is rated at 800 bhp at 2,400 rpm. The engine fits into the Detroit Diesel marine engine line-up, thus strengthening DDC's marine engine offering.

Turbocharged and intercooled, the engine has a freshwater heat exchanger, freshwater cooled exhaust manifolds and seawater charge cooling. Oil is freshwater cooled and the engine's filters are "spin-on" for ease of maintenance.

DEUTZ MWM Circle 63 on Reader Service Card Deutz MWM—this name comprises not only medium and big engines with powers up to 7,250 kw (9,860 hp) for ship propulsion application, but also compact high-speed engines for fast craft from around 20 to 1,940 kw (27 to 2,638 hp). Accordingly, the company is successfully represented worldwide in the highspeed vessel market.

The following examples of recent commissionings of custom yachts give an idea of what a wide field is covered with Deutz MWM engines in this area.

Last year, the Benetti shipyard (Azimut Group) delivered the 148- foot-long yacht Sea Sedan. Equipped with two Deutz MWM 12-cylinder 604B series engines, she has a cruising speed of some 16 knots.

The engines are designed for a maximum power output of 1,460 kw (1,986 hp) at a speed of 1,800 rpm.

Board electricity is supplied by two gensets with six-cylinder Deutz MWM 226 series engines.

The latest creation from Codecasa shipyard in Viareggio, the Iliki III, represents one of the yard's most advanced hull design and engineering system installations. She is equipped with two Deutz MWM eight-cylinder in-line engines of the 816 series with an output of 518 kw (705 hp) each. The 116-foot-long by 23-foot-wide yacht has a cruising speed of 14 knots. Two generator sets with a power of 68 kw are provided to supply board electricity.

The generators are driven by sixcylinder Deutz MWM engines of the 226B series.

Also last year, C.R.N., Ancona, delivered the 106-foot-long Vanina to her owners. She is equipped with a twin-engine propulsion plant of Deutz MWM 816 series engines.

The two 12-cylinder engines give the yacht a cruising speed of 14 knots. The 12-cylinder 816 engines are designed for a maximum power output of 920 kw (1,250 hp) at a speed of 2,000 rpm.

The range of Deutz MWM passenger boat propulsion engines not only meets requirements of low weight, little installation volume and excellent smooth-running characteristics, but is also highlighted by economy and environmental compatibility.

Deutz MWM engines set very high standards for fuel economy, and the low pollutant emission levels, whether in the cold-start, the warm-up or the ship's acceleration phase, are impressive—no smoke puffs that affect pleasure and comfort.

Worldwide product support for Deutz MWM engines is ensured by a great number of service stations and the headquarters-controlled Deutz service.

ELECTRO-MOTIVE Circle 64 on Reader Service Card In 1985, Electro-Motive Division of General Motors Corporation introduced the 710 G Series of engines.

Since then approximately 680 engines have been delivered for marine, rail, and power generation applications.

The larger displacement of the 710 engine is a result of a stroke increase of one-inch over the 10-inch stroke of the 645 Series. The bore size (9-1/16 inches) remained the same for both the 645 and the 710 engines. The engine was developed primarily for improved fuel economy and reliability while providing increased displacement for future rating growth. The 710 G provides up to a 4 percent fuel economy advantage over the latest 645 F model depending upon the engine type and application. The 710 G also produces a 6 percent to 10 percent increase in power rating.

In addition to the increased stroke, the 710 G incorporated significant new hardware. Included in those new components are a high efficiency turbocharger, newly designed fuel injectors, advanced power assembly components, and redesigned valve train components.

These new component designs and longer stroke of the engine optimized the air and fuel interaction within the engine providing the im- proved fuel economy performance.

In order to achieve the reliability goals, all of the major components of the 710 G engine were qualified mechanically through the use of finite element analysis during the drawing board phase of the design process. In addition, initial components were subjected to experimental testing of stresses and temperatures to assure conformance to design criteria and to verify analytical results.

The major emphasis placed on reliability from the very beginning of the design phase can be proven by examining the latest statistics of the 710 G population. In 1988, the 710 G fleet averaged a mean time between failures (MBTF) of 400 days. In 1989, the MBTF has been rising to the 550-day range. The 710 Series represents the most powerful, most efficient and most reliable EMD engine series to date.

KRUPP MAK C i r c l e 6 5 on Reader Service Card In recent years, Krupp MaK Motorenbau of West Germany has carried out a great deal of intensive research, design and development work in an effort to provide the best possible product for the changing marine market.

As a result of this effort, Krupp MaK has developed new combustion chamber shapes and injection processes for better trouble-free combustion of heavy fuels.

One of the firm's newest heavyfuel units is the M453C, which boosts low fuel consumption—a specific fuel consumption of 178 g/ kwh, corresponding to 131 g/psh.

The M 453 C has a continuous power of 365 kw per cylinder (500 hp per cylinder). The company reports that the engine features an excellent ratio of maximum to mean piston pressure, but a moderate, and therefore operational safe, value. Additionally, the moderate engine load permits a very favorable compression.

The engine runs very clean at low loads, partially as the result of high injection energy.

Krupp MaK has reorganized its engine range based on the very successful development of the M 453 C engine. The result is the C Series range. The C Series has a power range from 1,630 hp to 13,460 hp.

The relatively long piston strokes of the MaK engines permit quiet running with high mechanical efficiency.

The cylinder air exchange is more effective as with a short stroke engine. The engines are built for a low thermal load, in order to be suitable for heavy fuel oil operation.

MAN B&W DIESEL C i r c l e 1 0 8 on Reader Service Card MAN B&W Diesel offers an optimally graded four-stroke engine program of state-of-the-art design in the output range between 3,300 kw and 12,000 kw, equipped to meet the propulsion requirements of the 90s. The series is comprised of three MAN B&W medium-speed engines, all modeled on the same design principles.

Beginning with the largest engine, the L58/64, MAN B&W has created an engine series for a class of toprated engines designed with a view of achieving economy and reliability and equipped with future-orientated, technical and economical design characteristics.

The L58/64 has a piston diameter of 580 mm and a stroke of 640 mm and develops a cylinder output of 1,325 kw at 428 rpm.

The L40/54, with its cylinder output of 665 kw, is modeled on the basic design concept of the L58/64 engine, an engine that has since proved itself in operation in numerous ships' propulsion plants.

The L48/60 engine, which was recently introduced at an international press conference, plugs the output gap between the 40/54 and the 58/64 with its 885-kw per cylinder at a speed of 450 rpm.

All three engines are supplied as in-line configuration engines with between six and nine cylinders.

The principle design features of the MAN B&W medium-speed engine generation include: Rigid monoblock frame casing; underslung crankshaft; individual cylinder jackets, resulting in minimum deformation from gas and mass forces and thermal influences; exhaust valves arranged in cages resulting in simplified maintenance of components.

According to MAN B&W, their new generation of medium-speed engines offer further reductions in fuel consumption rates (85% ECR): L40/54—172 b/kWh, L48/60—169 g/kWh, and L58/64—167 g/kWh; lube oil consumption rates of less than 1 g/kWh; significant reductions in pollutant emission levels; extensive utilization of various engine waste heats, resulting in a high aggregate efficiency of the propulsion system; long wear component lifetime; and a simple maintenance concept.

MTU Circle 66 on Reader Siervice Card MTU diesel engines are usually considered in connection with fast naval craft and boats for public authorities, as well as for yachts.

However, what is less well known is that MTU engines are also popular in commercial applications throughout the world.

For example, around 500 engines of Series 331/396, 538 and 1163—as well as Series 652, which is no longer in the sales program—have been delivered to date for the workboat market segment. When all the series that MTU markets are added to these, the number of engines delivered is more than 1,000.

In freighters, pilot launches, fireboats, oil-spill containment craft, dredges and floating cranes, to name just the main types, MTU engines have reached run times of up to 24,000 operating hours—in tugboats, even 30,000 hours. In the fast crew and supply boats of the offshore industry, the compact engines of Series 396 are the preferred power source; here, current run times of 20,000 have been logged.

MTU has long had a strong market position in hydrofoil and catamaran craft for fast passenger and freight service. To date, MTU Friedrichshafen has delivered more than 600 engines for propulsion plants in hydrofoils and catamarans.

Two orders for MTU diesel engines are of particular interest: (1) Five of ten 450-passenger catamarans ordered from a Norwegian shipyard are driven by two MTU 12-cylinder 396 TB63 engines producing a total of 1,960 kw (2,660 hp) at 1,650 rpm; the other five have 16- cylinder 396 TB83 engines with 3,020 kw (4,100 hp) at 1,940 rpm.

The first vessels put into service have already accumulated a total of over 30,000 operating hours. (2) MTU contracted to deliver 38 engines— 8V 396 TB83—to a Greek ship line for installation in hydrofoil craft to replace the original engines.

The continuous-duty power of the two engines together is 1,540 kw (2095 hp) at 1,900 rpm, enabling the 136-passenger hydrofoils to reach a speed of 32 knots.

PEUGEOT ENGINES Circle 71 on Reader Service Card Peugeot Engines & Components of Rutherford, N.J., offers the Peugeot model XD3P diesel engine for both stationary and mobile applications.

The engine delivers 76 hp at 4,500 rpm.

Ricardo Comet V combustion chambers in the diesel engines mix air and fuel more effectively for more efficient combustion and maximum power output. Cast iron blocks with integral cylinder liners improve cooling, increase life and facilitate servicing of the XD3P.

The compact 2.5-liter engines have excellent power-to-weight ratios.

Accessory PTO capabilities are available.

Peugeot now offers six models of liquid-cooled, four-cylinder diesel engines for OEM customers ranging from 50 to 110 hp. Compatible gasoline/ LPG fueled engines, ranging from 45 to 160 hp, are also part of the Peugeot OEM line.

Technical data on the Peugeot XD3P engines for power applications in material handling, agricultural and utility vehicles, as well as pump, compressor and generator drives is available.

STEWART & STEVENSON Circle 72 on Reader Service Card Stewart & Stevenson Services, Inc., with branches in Harvey, La., and Houston, Texas, is one of the world's largest distributors of diesel engines with Detroit Diesel and General Motors-EMD engines from 50 to 4,300 hp.

With a normal inventory of hundreds of diesel engines and generators, a staff of experienced mechanical, electrical, and marine engineers, along with 24-hour worldwide parts and service, Stewart & Stevenson offers an excellent support network to its customers.

Full service branches, two remanufacturing plants, and over 200 dealers are ready to provide full service to customers, from financing a vessel to training and technical support.

Stewart & Stevenson can provide custom engineered power systems for all marine applications.

SULZER Circle 73 on Reader Service Card The new 354-foot Swedish icebreaker Oden features Sulzer diesel engines for both her propulsion and auxiliary duties. She is propelled by four Sulzer eight-cylinder ZA40S medium-speed diesel engines with a total power output of 18,000 kw (24,500 hp) at 510 rpm. In addition, the ship's electrical requirements are met by four Sulzer 6AT25H auxiliary diesel engines, each of 1,270 kw (1,730 bhp) output at 1,000 rpm.

Both main and auxiliary engines were built under license in Poland.

The diesel-mechanical machinery arrangement of the 13,000-ton Oden represents the latest state-of-theart technology in icebreaker design.

The 8ZA40S main engines drive twin CP propellers through gearing and thereby end a diesel-electrical tradition in Baltic icebreakers that has lasted over 50 years. The change came principally because of machinery cost and fuel consumption but was also supported by past success with diesel-mechanical machinery in other icebreakers in other countries.

In addition, the Oden reinforces Sulzer's leading position in the icebreaker market. Some 299 Sulzer medium-speed diesel engines totaling about 1,026 MW (1.4 million bhp) have been installed in, or ordered for, 116 icebreaking vessels.

In other company news, Sulzer marked its first Sulzer S20 marine propulsion system installation when Pesquera Loa Norte SA of Chile ordered seven of the units for reengining of seven fishing vessels.

Each propulsion system includes a six-cylinder S20 diesel engine, Reintjes gearbox, fixed-pitch propeller, PTO gearbox, controls and all other necessary ancillary equipment.

The Sulzer 6S20 diesel engines develop 870 kw (1,185 bhp) each at 1,000 rpm.

The re-engining of the vessels will provide them with higher speed capability.

With cylinder dimensions of 200- mm bore and 300-mm stroke, the S20 range of six-, eight- and ninecylinder engines offers power outputs between 570 and 1,350 kw at speeds of 720-1,000 rpm. Using technology proven in Sulzer's large four-stroke engine types, the S20 has benefits of: (1) full heavy-fuel operation (700 cSt) and increased performance with marine diesel oil; (2) clean combustion, even at part load, without a need to use a charge air heating system in low-load operation; and (3) designed for high reliability and durability with two-year overhaul intervals.

SWDIESEL Circle 67 on Reader Service Card Since it was first introduced in 1982, over 150 SW280 diesel engines in the 6-8-9 in-line and 12- and 16- cylinder V configuration have been installed in various ship types and shore installations. The basic design of the SW280 enables it to be operated on both heavy and light fuel oils and several SWDiesel engines have been supplied for installations which are capable of running on fuels with a viscosity of max. 700 cSt.

Over 50 ships with SW280 engines have entered service in the fishing industry, where, besides a considerable number in the Netherlands fleet, the engine has been installed in vessels from Spain, Iceland, Scotland, and even in a factory trawler, the Arctic Storm, fishing near Alaska. The Arctic Storm features a 16-cylinder SW280 main propulsion engine and a 6SW280 auxiliary engine. As an auxiliary unit, the SW280 engine has been fitted aboard containerships, supply and dredging vessels and ferries.

Over 1,250 cylinders with an aggregate output of over 380,000 kw have shown that the SW280 diesel engine has gained wide acceptance in the marine market.

Based upon decades of experience, Dutch engine manufacturer SWDiesel has developed a large variety of medium-speed engines ranging in power from 400 kw (536 hp) to 13,000 kw (17,433 hp).

Comprehensive research, sophisticated calculating methods, and the latest tools and equipment have enabled SWDiesel to manufacture a well-balanced and modern diesel engine range—powerful, fuel-efficient and highly reliable.

VOLVO PENTA Circle 68 on Reader Service Card A total of twelve units of the newest and largest engine design of AB Volvo Penta of Gothenburg, Sweden, were recently installed aboard two inland waterway forestry products shuttles operating in Europe.

The six diesel engines fitted on each of the 287-foot shuttles are of Volvo Penta's new TAMD 162 design, each rated at 346 kw at 1,800 rpm, and connected to Stamford generators. Power is supplied to a switchboard and from there to two KaMeWa CP propeller thrusters, also of new design, via ABB 1,000- kw electric motors.

The diesel-electric system driving thrusters has been adopted to provide the vessels with increased cargo volume, while at the same time providing a simple installation, increased safety and reduced manning.

The engines are 16-liter units of Volvo Penta's in-line six-cylinder format with four valves per cylinder, turbocharging and aftercooling. The TAMD 162 was introduced in the second half of last year, and is the largest diesel produced by Volvo Penta.

Volvo Penta reports the advanced engine design incorporates a number of new features that combine to give low maintenance requirements and long operational life while still achieving increased engine performance and higher efficiency and safety.

Besides the shuttles' main propulsion units, Volvo Penta also supplied the vessels' emergency generator sets—in each case a TAMD 71A unit of 135 kw, connected to a Stamford generator rated at 85 kw at 1,800 rpm.

WARTSILA DIESEL Circle 74 on Reader Service Card Wartsila Diesel of Finland has introduced the Wartsila Vasa 46, an innovative medium-speed, fourstroke heavy fuel engine designed for maximum operational reliability.

The most significant design features of the Vasa 46 are the thickpad technology for reduced bearing loads, the new SwirlEx charging system for high efficiency at all loads and speeds and Twin Injection, the double injection system for a high rate of combustion and low fuel consumption.

The output range of the engine is 3,600-16,300 kw (4,828- 21,858 hp) at a speed range of 450- 514 rpm.

The first Vasa 46 installation was aboard a multipurpose RO/RO vessel built at the J.J. Sietas Shipyard in Hamburg. The vessel is fitted with a six-cylinder Vasa 46 as her main engine.

The new Birka Line AB 1,700- passenger, 32,000-grt luxury cruiser, now under construction at Wartsila Marine's shipyard in Turku, Finland, will have a propulsion plant consisting of four six-cylinder Vasa 46 engines. The total output of the main machinery is 21,100 kw at 500 rpm.

The cruiser will also be fitted with Vasa type auxiliary engines. Electricity onboard will be generated by four six-cylinder Wartsila Vasa 32 engines with a total output of 9,800 kw at 750 rpm.

Both the main and auxiliary engines will be elastically mounted.

The main engines drive two CP propellers through reduction gears. The engines will be delivered to the shipyard at the end of 1989.

Another recent introduction from Wartsila is the Wartsila Vasa 22/26, a powerful medium-speed auxiliary engine. This engine is well-suited for power production in different types of vessels. Rigid design of the components combined with an optimized combustion process guarantees reliable and economical operation at all loads, even on the lowest grade heavy fuels. The Vasa 22/26 has a cylinder bore of 220 mm and a piston stroke of 260 mm. The output range is 54—3,000 kw at speeds ranging from 720 to 1,100 rpm.

Maritime Reporter Magazine, page 18,  Jul 1989 Argus Traveler

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