Page 34: of Maritime Logistics Professional Magazine (Q1 2011)

Maritime Risk

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34 Maritime Professional 1Q 2011

An in-depth analysis of our orderbook of some 900 vessels with Ice

Class shows that rough- ly 350 vessels will be suit- able for Arctic operation. The strong demand of ice class vessels is reflecting the perceived export of Russian oil. By 2015 Russia will export approx. 5.7 mbpd of which approx. 4.7 mbpd require Arctic ice classed tankers. Due to climate changes, the

Arctic sea ice cover is expected to retreat significantly in the summer period.

The Arctic region offers two alternative shipping routes.

Since 2008, some 20 – 30 days per year offered ice free con- ditions. If this trend continues, the Arctic could be used more reliably for navigation, at least during the summer months.

The Northwest Passage crossing Canada’s Arctic Ocean could by 2020 become usable on a regular basis. Long term opportunities can be seen for regular merchant shipping and general cargo and container vessels. Oil production in the

Arctic will increase the demand for tanker while mining of raw material will increase the demand for supply and offshore vessels. GL is involved in research projects on Arctic ship- ping.

TØRSTAD (DNV) First, the class standards involve both structur- al strength and cold climate operations of vessels today and class clearly has a central role for ship safety in new trade routes like the Arctic. Today, DNV has a variety of ICE Class notations for hull strength and machinery as well as a number of class notations for cold weather or polar climates. Also,

Arctic operations are a key research and development area for

DNV. For example, some of our strategic research projects are: • Integration of human response measures in Arctic opera- tions • Prediction of effects of extreme ice features on ships, plat- forms & pipelines • Evaluation of emergency evacuation for ships and plat- forms in the Arctic • Assessment of safe and effective ship operations in Arctic conditions • Decision support systems for Arctic environmental response and management

WIERNICKI (ABS) ABS has extensive experience with vessels and offshore structures designed for service in harsh environ- ments and the first offshore facilities operating in the waters north of Alaska. More recently we have been involved in evaluating semisubmersibles and drill barges designed for harsh environment operations and dual classing Arctic shuttle tankers with Russian Maritime Register of Shipping (RS).

In 2009 ABS established a Harsh Environment Technology

Center (HETC) in collaboration with Memorial University in

St. John’s Newfoundland. The Center supports the develop- ment of technologies for ships and offshore structures operat- ing in harsh environments, particularly the Arctic. Applied research will be conducted to study vessels and units operat- ing in ice covered waters, low temperature environments and severe wave and wind climates.

The recently updated ABS Guide for Vessels Operating in

Low Temperature Environments includes a new subsection regarding specific vessel requirements for drilling units in response to an expected increase in activities in the Arctic and other low temperature regions in coming years.

LNG for use as propulsion is not new, but reliance on it as a pri- mary fuel certainly is. What is the role of Class in this effort?

Define the risks inherent in this new technology and effort for our readers.

SADLER (LR) Broadly speaking, gas has a future as a fuel – prob- ably along with other alternatives and Lloyd’s Register has a number of projects running looking at future fuels such as nuclear, fuel cells, biofuels and wind power as well as LNG.

LNG has been used on a relatively small number of LNG ships for some time; however, there are an increasing number of proposals for high efficiency engine systems utilizing high pressure gas applications.

It is still early to say whether these will have a big impact on marine propulsion systems other than on LNG carriers where efficiency of transit also relates to efficient use of Boil Off

Gas. The main applications in the immediate future will be in short sea and ferry shipping in ECAs and where gas is wide- ly available and where there are immediate compliance requirements — but there are question marks over the more general adoption of LNG as fuel for the bulk of the world fleet. Safety and technical issues, implications for cargo space and, importantly, the availability of LNG bunker net- works, are all factors that need to be addressed. If world trade continues to grow, LNG cannot provide the big jump, such as

Tørstad (DNV) LNG fuelled vessels can be financially viable for shipowners and they will reduce CO2, NOx,

SOx and particulate matter emissions significantly.

ROUNDTABLE

Maritime Logistics Professional

Maritime Logistics Professional magazine is published six times annually.