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might be provided by nuclear energy, required to substantial- ly reduce global CO2 emissions from shipping.
LR is nevertheless very well placed to help industry under- stand the challenges of LNG as a fuel. As the leaders in gas ship classification and the first Class Society to have intro- duced the Safety Case for evaluation of novel marine propul- sion systems we have conducted numerous Risk Assessments on LNG reliquefaction, regasification and ship to ship LNG cargo transfers world-wide and, currently are involved in evaluations of dual fuel and LNG bunkering systems with shipowners in ECAs.
WIERNICKI (ABS) With environmental economic concerns at the forefront of the maritime industry, using LNG as a fuel for ship propulsion is appealing in terms of reducing exhaust gas emissions and fuel economy. Involved in various joint indus- try research and development projects, ABS has been asked to focus its efforts on three areas: design and technical issues, operational and economic impact, and rules and regulations.
Several sectors of the shipping industry are investigating new sources of propulsion in order to comply with pending and future legislation on ship-source pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. Smaller specialist tonnage has already been successfully equipped with LNG power.
Ballast Water Treatment technology is fast becoming one of the most diverse and active maritime industry initiatives. The world’s classification societies have a role in this effort. Ship owners are nervous about installing technologies that might not be around for the long haul, once IMO and U.S. Coast
Guard standards are married. Where will Class come into play when a common international standard is set, how, and what has already been done?
TØRSTAD (DNV) LNG fuel for propulsion is here now and DNV has been actively involved in this since 2001 when LNG was first used as fuel for ships. DNV was the first classification society with rules for LNG fueled ships and more than 20
LNG fuelled ships, all but one classed by DNV, are now oper- ating. In April 2010, DNV launched a concept container ship vessel powered by LNG fuel and in December 2010, DNV presented another concept vessel, a VLCC powered by LNG fuel and a new hull design to eliminate the need for ballast water. LNG fuelled vessels can be financially viable for shipowners and they will reduce CO2, NOx, SOx and partic- ulate matter emissions significantly.
Technically, LNG is safe technology with proper standards and procedures. This has been proven in LNG shipping for over 40 years and for ship propulsion for about 10 years.
Some of the major risks considered in the standards and pro- cedures include liquid or vapor spills, safety hazards, such as cryogenic burning, asphyxiation, over pressurization, and fire hazards. DNV is conducting ongoing research and develop- ment to further understand the risks, technology and improve safety.
Reducing stack emissions through the use of monitoring, scrub- bers, various ECA’s and low sulphur/alternative fuels has been ongoing. But, there are other ways that this can be accomplished, including but not limited to changes in vessel hull design. Explain how your organization is involved in this effort and pick out a cou- ple of coming trends to add to the mix.
WIERNICKI (ABS) ABS believes that there needs to be consider- able progress in ship operation and design if the industry is to meet its goals of reducing its environmental footprint while maintaining operational safety and commercial efficiencies.
The opportunity for improvements in ship design and opera- tion that will allow for environmental progress will come from greater optimization of the existing standard design bulk carrier and modified tanker hull forms which can enhance performance and reduce resistance in a seaway.
Traditional design approaches can also be re-thought to pro- vide improvements. There is growing evidence that many bul- bous bow configurations may actually adversely affect the open water performance of a bluff-bowed, high block co-effi- cient vessel in a seaway. Although some designers have developed new approaches to bow design, there is still a great deal to be done to identify the optimum configuration for the various types and sizes of vessels.
At the other end of the ship, there is the promise of equal or even greater efficiencies with respect to the manner in which water is directed onto the propeller and the design of the pro- peller itself. Using CFD, designers will be able to further improve propeller efficiency and smooth the wake to gain increases in performance.
These areas of research are com- plimentary to those being con- ducted into fuel cells, solar powered
Wiernicki (ABS) Ballast Water Treatment technology is fast becoming one of the most diverse and active maritime industry initiatives. Ship owners are nervous about installing technologies that might not be around for the long haul.