New Research Doubles Service Life Estimate of Marine Workboat Engines, Reveals Big Opportunities for Diesel Emissions Reductions.
It turns out that commercial workboat engines are staying in service more than two times longer than predicted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), according new research from the Diesel Technology Forum (DTF) and Environmental Defense Fund (EDF). That says a lot for the quality of marine engines, but at the same it isn’t necessarily a good thing. But, the news provides clues to a new path for clean air improvements in large port cities.
The new report, entitled “Impact of Updated Service Life Estimates on Harbor Craft and Switcher Locomotive Emission Forecasts and Cost-Effectiveness,” found the average Category 2 workboat remains in service for 50 years, instead of the 23-year lifespan estimated by the EPA in the 2008 Heavy Duty Locomotive and Marine Rule. A longer service life reduces the fleet’s turnover rate to cleaner, lower-emitting engines, therefore increasing future-year emission estimates.
Separately, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers estimates that, as of 2014, there were approximately 9,000 Category 1 and 2 marine vessels operating on U.S. waters. The Category 2 workboats highlighted in the DTF and EDF report have displacements of 7 to 30 liters per cylinder and are installed primarily in larger pushboats, towboats or offshore support vessels.
But, the DTF underscores the reality that more, older engines remain in service today. Since real-world workboat engines are operating with longer lifespans, the actual nitrogen oxide emission reductions are 52 percent weaker than predicted in EPA’s 2008 Rule calculations.
The EPA estimates that, as of 2014, 81 percent of Category 1 and 2 workboats used older, uncontrolled or Tier 1 diesel engines, which are 10 times higher in emissions than a modern Tier 4 diesel engine. The slow turnover rate of these technologies means communities will only see nitrogen oxide (NOx) reductions of 161,167 tons per year, well below the 333,925-ton reduction predicted in the EPA 2008 Rule. Similarly, fine particulate emissions will only be reduced by 3,537 tons per year, instead of by 8,758 tons per year.
Starting in 2015, new diesel engines used in marine applications in the United States were required to meet Tier 4 emissions standards. Relative to previous generations of technology, these latest clean diesel technologies are proven to dramatically reduce emissions, including nitrogen oxides and fine particulates, by 88 percent to 95 percent compared to previous generations. Despite the widespread availability of the new, cleaner diesel engines for workboats, the cost and downtime required to upgrade and other factors have likely delayed investments in the newest technologies.
Hence, if the rate of turnover to the newest generation of diesel technologies can be accelerated, near-port communities stand to reap significant air quality benefits. EDF calls it ‘low hanging fruit.’ For example, if all existing Category 2 vessels serving the New York Harbor upgraded to the newest diesel engines, emissions in the New York metropolitan area would be cut by more than 8 tons of nitrogen oxides per day. In the Port of Houston and Galveston, more than 4 tons of nitrogen oxides reductions per day could be realized for the Houston metropolitan area.
The opportunity to immediately replace old work boat engines with new ones already exists; using funds from Volkswagen’s $2.9 billion environmental mitigation trust for marine repower projects. And, previous DTF/EDF studies confirm that upgrading workboats to the newest-model clean diesel engines delivers the greatest emissions improvements for the lowest cost. For example, on average, upgrading the engines of a single tugboat to the newest diesel technologies eliminates 14.9 tons of nitrogen oxide emissions per year for only $4,379 per ton of nitrogen oxide eliminated. Other types of nitrogen oxide-reduction projects can cost more than $30,000 per ton of nitrogen oxide.
In a nutshell, the Diesel Technology Forum and the Environmental Defense Fund undertook this analysis to better understand the potential opportunity the Volkswagen $2.9 billion Environmental Mitigation Trust could have on reducing diesel emissions from older marine workboats and switcher locomotives.
States, as beneficiaries of the Trust, maintain an account with the Trust and the amount therein is determined by the population of passenger vehicles found to have been outfitted with technology to sidestep emission requirements. The Trust allows for the replacement or repower of heavy-duty equipment which are the largest contributors to NOx emissions. Repowering large applications, including switch locomotives and marine workboats, is an eligible category of funding through the Trust.
These workboats and switch locomotives operate at marine ports located in or adjacent to major cities and contribute to hazardous smog pollution. Replacing these older engines with new clean diesel models can have an immediate and significant beneficial impact in reducing emissions for sensitive communities. Relative to previous generations of technology, the latest clean diesel technologies can reduce emissions, including NOx and fine particle emissions, by 88 percent to 95 percent. While the latest clean diesel technologies are ready and available to reduce emissions, the EPA estimates that by 2020, unless additional action is taken, only 5 percent of the switch locomotive and 3 percent of the marine workboat fleets will be powered by these clean technologies.
Through the Trust, states may use Trust revenue to fund up to 40 percent of the cost and installation of new cleaner engines that power marine workboats. Moreover, equipment owned by government agencies may receive up to 100 percent of the new engine cost. Other incentive programs are also available for states and others to pursue these projects. The Diesel Emission Reduction Act (DERA), for example, managed by the EPA, is a federal program that provides grant funding to help with the cost and installation of new cleaner engines or upgrades to older engines that improves emission performance.
Commercial marine and locomotive source categories should be a primary focus of future emission reduction efforts for retrofit/repower programs based on cost effectiveness. Compared to other mobile source emission reduction projects, projects to reduce emission rates from commercial marine vessel engines typically have a longer project life based on the remaining service life which produces greater project total emission reductions. Greater project emission reductions results in more cost-effective projects. In other words: a great opportunity for operators to get green cheaply, and a terrific way to keep our shipyards humming along.
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MARINE CRANES in way of changes to the NY Canal’s work barge had to be made in order to install the crane. “The existing holes through the four-inch foundation mounting plate were drilled to accept slightly larger bolts and an additional four holes were drilled to increase the total number of mounting
MARINE CRANES Exceptional (Market) Reach Lifts a Crane Retro? t to Success T e New York State Canal System, Advance Marine and MelCal Cranes all enjoy a reputation for versatile applications in challenging conditions. It’s no wonder that their recent deal to replace an aging maintenance crane
PROPULSION “T e approach was to take advantage of the automotive diesel engine’s inherent high performance, substantially increased life and substantially reduced operational cost and compliance with environmen- tal laws and regulations and combine it into a more reliable drive train suitable for
PROPULSION that when you lift the soundproof cowl, everything is easily accessible. CIMCO also designed a similar mounting pat- tern as a Yamaha 200hp outboard; the prop uses the same spline and shaft. As Pim Polesie, the Chief Marketing Credit: OXE Of? cer for Cimco, explained, “The ap- proach was to
PROPULSION T e OXE Diesel Outboard Arrives Credit: OXE Swedish manufacturer Cimco Marine has developed the world’s f rst 200hp diesel marine outboard – named the OXE Diesel – for maritime security agencies, yacht tenders, municipalities and military applications. By Rick Eyerdam s Trace Laborde, Marine
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INSIGHTS investor and Chairman Charles Good. After a few years of development, interest was sparked from the US Government and UK Ministry of Defence (MoD). The MoD’s Defence Science and Technology Laboratory (DSTL) was so im- pressed by the concept, it agreed to provide Cox Powertrain with “invaluable
BY THE NUMBERS By the Numbers, the 2018 inspection data looks something like this in 2018: 40 (*): Number of U.S. ? agged vessels were detained by USCG (8 months data only) 75: PCT reportable marine casualties involving barges de? ned as collision, allision or grounding 1,812: Number
BY THE NUMBERS The U.S. Coast Guard’s 2018 Domestic Annual Report on Flag State Control The U.S. Coast Guard’s 2018 Domestic Annual Report given the millions of lives at stake – in the U.S. ? ag ? eet. contains statistics regarding inspections and enforcement In 2018 there were 40 valid Flag State
Authors Contributors & MarineNews June 2019 Volume 30 Number 6 Elliott Ewing Mulligan Eyerdam Jim Elliott is President of the American Salvage As- Tom Ewing is a freelance writer specializing in energy sociation and Chief Operating Of? cer of the Teichman and environmental issues. Group of Companies
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CONTENTS MarineNews June 2019 • Volume 30 Number 6 INSIGHTS 14 Joel Reid Global Sales Director, COX Powertrain OP/ED 20 A Reassessment of the U.S. Marine Salvage Posture By Jim Elliott FeaturesFeatures Credit: OXE MARINE CRANES 24 The OXE Diesel Outboard Arrives Cimco Marine’s 200hp
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