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  • Electronic Navigational Chart (ENC) data, also known as S-57 data, provides a great beginning for a national marine spatial data infrastructure (MSDI). Unfortunately, in much of the world outside the United States, national hydrographic office licensing restrictions on ENC data—implemented to ensure quality of navigation information for safety of life at sea (SOLAS) compliance—limit the official use of S-57 data for non-navigational purposes. In an analogous limitation, many ports—where the economic levers of maritime advantage for a region or nation are fulfilled—do not perform the requisite data management that leads to the explicit assessment of risks to their underwater infrastructure. However, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has been exceptional in its open data policy for S-57, and this has led to broad innovation in the use of ENC data in both navigation applications and non-navigational engineering and biological analysis. 

     
    Every port has depth information. After all, that’s what differentiates a port from the non-port land around it; personnel know how deep a ship’s draft can be for cargo transfer. This information needs to get to the mariner and be sent upstream, respectively, to the cargo shipper; to the cargo contract holder; to the insurance agency; and, finally, to the reinsurer. Currently, the primary mode of delivery of that information to all parties is the ENC for commercial shipping. National hydrographic offices, such as NOAA’s Office of Coast Survey, compile these information products and disseminate them by a variety of means. This ensures that the information meets certain requirements and can be legally substantiated. A significant amount of expertise and manpower is required to conflate and compile the data into these cartographic products, and making them has traditionally been a multimonth or, sometimes, multiyear effort. This degrades the value, however, because by the time the end product ENC is in use by the supply chain, the actual depth along the transit can change from what was reported to the mariner, the shipper and the insurer. 
     
    NOAA has moved to a vector-first production cycle to improve the velocity of the information product supply chain, and feedback on the NOAA National Charting Plan raised eyebrows when the option of eliminating printed charts was brought up. There are now weekly releases of ENC updates, and NOAA is investigating a user-driven area-of-interest printing system that uses the same information stream. Usability could be improved by increasing the velocity of data from the ports. But what if a port could provide responsible data that has reliable metadata for inclusion in NOAA’s compilation system? Taking this a step further, what if there were a local copy of the compilation system that the port could maintain and periodically check in to the NOAA system? Extending this pattern to computing clouds, an authoritative and role-based access subscription in a Federal Risk and Authorization Management Program (FedRAMP)-certified system would allow ports to easily participate in a national system that provides the best access to the most recent navigation information.
     
    These assessments should be made using maintenance procedures that include the following: surveys performed prior to and after dredging to determine payment and identification of dredging periodicity requirements, accurate surveys of berthing areas for loading at lower stages of tide and determination of the threshold clearance depth in a common area for access to a port from the main entrance. If only performed as baselines or snapshots—and not surveyed with ample coverage or enough frequency to enable staff to understand change over time—port operations assume a time-varying risk relative to a variety of factors, including water levels, sedimentation rates, sea states and vessel draft. 
     
    Reducing navigational risk by taking a more active role in underkeel clearance management is a goal of a prototype project undertaken by the Port of Los Angeles and NOAA’s Office of Coast Survey. In this project, live measurements of the ocean swell at the port’s entrance, combined with high-resolution bathymetric surveys, have helped define allowable ship drafts for the port and the pilots at sea and provided decision support guidance to reduce risk of grounding. Taking this prototype project to a national scale would require more instrumentation and a framework of activities that would overwhelm smaller ports’ limited staff. However, there may be a way to leverage what has been learned in the Port of Los Angeles and apply that knowledge through a computing cloud-based data pattern, resulting in getting navigational information to the mariner in a more timely manner. For many U.S. ports, this information could be added to the NOAA Physical Oceanographic Real-Time System (PORTS) observation network. 
     
    Such a system would give the port control over how often and to what extent the information reaching the supply chain would be updated. This then would afford a competitive advantage to the port’s operational infrastructure. Simultaneously, it would increase the value of the MSDI that NOAA contributes to the national Blue Economy along with the river infrastructure maintained by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the highway infrastructure maintained by state departments of transportation and the aviation infrastructure maintained by the Federal Aviation Administration and airports. 
     
    A centralized geographic information system (GIS) can share compiled ENC information while maintaining the security of underlying data, thus ensuring that vector information can be used for nonnavigational purposes and not in chart compilation. GIS allows the authoritative output of the hydrographic office to be shared with key stakeholders, whether those are national agencies responsible for safe navigation, regional authorities in charge of marine spatial planning or ports managing underkeel clearance risk. The Information for Maritime Infrastructure (IMI) of ports, including the myriad silos of vessels’ real-time information, meteorological conditions, water levels and shoreside assets, should all be brought together into a unified common operating picture (COP) for situational awareness. Also, this COP should be viewable by any authorized users—from anywhere, at any time, on any device—according to their role in the operational shipping activity. A flexible software platform with open data architecture and a holistic GIS can provide such a picture.
     
     
    A port may have a few surveys from past dredging projects—maybe from pier reconstructions—in formats such as comma-separated variable (CSV) text, spreadsheets, ASCII XYZ, AutoCAD or Terramodel format. As foundational datasets, these surveys need some descriptive text—such as the date of data acquisition, who did the surveying and what kinds of instrument and positioning were used—to become informative and retain value over time. Of course, vertical and horizontal reference points for the data are needed, too. If these points are all converted to a point cloud of XYZ and a grid is created from that cloud, when this data is combined with the attributed metadata, the result is a bathymetric surface that has attributes at each grid.


    The Author
    Guy T. Noll is Maritime Principal Consultant, Esri




     
     
    (As published in the September 2017 edition of Marine Technology Reporter)
  • unit fail. Write 74 on Reader Service Card MAGNAVOX Interfacing with any shipboard navigation, logging, or measuring device having a Baudot or ASCII output, the Magnavox MX I l l - VMS automatic vessel monitoring system is a complete data transmission arrangement for vessel monitoring via MARISAT

  • also selected the Accufix 500N (19 systems). The new Accufix 500N+ with Loran- C, GPS, differential Loran and GPS capability has both RTCM 104 and ASCII RS232 data outputs. A 16-bit embedded microprocessor allows for expansion in both options and capabilities. This technology will allow for receiver

  • MT Oct-18#55  cycle, 
now be exported as ASCII, Caris, and  processing)
    October 2018 - Marine Technology Reporter page: 55

    Qimera 1.7.2 Processed Points ? le formats. SVPs can be enabled and disabled as desired. The Watts using up to a 30% duty cycle, now be exported as ASCII, Caris, and processing is not complicated and leads or 200 Watts maximum for continuous Hypack formats. This functionality is to interesting analysis

  • MT Sep-18#1  Time: < 2 mins software (SBET/ ASCII)
Max error < 30 cms
Many)
    September 2018 - Marine Technology Reporter page: 1

    ef ects Example: up to 80 seconds Log duration: 2h15 Easy export to third party 95% positions < 2 cms Processing Time: < 2 mins software (SBET/ ASCII) Max error < 30 cms Many thanks to Hydro Systems Development (HSD Japan) for their kind collaboration. Full data available upon request at marketing@sbg-sys

  • MT Jun-18#1  Time: < 2 mins software (SBET/ ASCII)
Max error < 30 cms
Many)
    June 2018 - Marine Technology Reporter page: 1

    ef ects Example: up to 80 seconds Log duration: 2h15 Easy export to third party 95% positions < 2 cms Processing Time: < 2 mins software (SBET/ ASCII) Max error < 30 cms Many thanks to Hydro Systems Development (HSD Japan) for their kind collaboration. Full data available upon request at marketing@sbg-sys

  • MR Sep-17#12  (CSV) text, spreadsheets, ASCII XYZ, AutoCAD or 
Terramodel)
    September 2017 - Maritime Reporter and Engineering News page: 12

    may have a few surveys from past dredging projects—maybe from pier reconstructions— in formats such as comma-separated variable (CSV) text, spreadsheets, ASCII XYZ, AutoCAD or Terramodel format. As foundational datasets, these surveys need some descriptive text—such as the date of data acquisition, who did

  • MT Sep-17#15  the U.S. Army Corps of Engi-
ASCII XYZ, AutoCAD or Terramodel)
    September 2017 - Marine Technology Reporter page: 15

    Blue Economy along with the river as comma-separated variable (CSV) text, spreadsheets, infrastructure maintained by the U.S. Army Corps of Engi- ASCII XYZ, AutoCAD or Terramodel format. As foundation- neers, the highway infrastructure maintained by state depart- al datasets, these surveys need some

  • MT Mar-16#77  and communicates via simple ASCII 
NMEA-0183 commands or)
    March 2016 - Marine Technology Reporter page: 77

    to be in- stalled. self-discharge. PowerPacks are available from 100+ Wh to 100+ kWh. The BMS controls all safety functions and communicates via simple ASCII NMEA-0183 commands or via MODBUS. Being quali? ed according to ISO 13628:6, MIL- STD 810G, the Li-Ion batteries are used for Subsea Oil+Gas. Standardize

  • MR Jul-81#24  
device having a Baudot or ASCII 
output, the Magnavox)
    July 1981 - Maritime Reporter and Engineering News page: 24

    unit fail. Write 74 on Reader Service Card MAGNAVOX Interfacing with any shipboard navigation, logging, or measuring device having a Baudot or ASCII output, the Magnavox MX Ill- VMS automatic vessel monitoring system is a complete data trans- mission arrangement for vessel monitoring via

  • MR Mar-92#68  has both RTCM 104 
and ASCII RS232 data outputs. A)
    March 1992 - Maritime Reporter and Engineering News page: 68

    selected the Accufix 500N (19 sys- tems). The new Accufix 500N+ with Lo- ran-C, GPS, differential Loran and GPS capability has both RTCM 104 and ASCII RS232 data outputs. A 16-bit embedded microprocessor al- lows for expansion in both options and capabilities. This technology will allow for

  • MR Sep-15-73#35  accommodates all ESSI, EIA, ASCII and 
EIARS 244 formats)
    September 15, 1973 - Maritime Reporter and Engineering News page: 35

    1200 comput- er control and a Model 75 automatic drafting table, available in sizes from 5x8 feet to 8 x 24 feet. It accommodates all ESSI, EIA, ASCII and EIARS 244 formats. And the entire inte- grated system is designed, manufactured and serviced by Gerber Scientific ... the proven name in

  • MR Jun-15-73#12  It accommodates all ESSI, EIA, ASCII and 
EIARS 244 formats)
    June 15, 1973 - Maritime Reporter and Engineering News page: 12

    comput- er control and a Model 75 automatic drafting table, available , ram— in sizes from 5x8 feet to 8 x 24 feet. •Tj It accommodates all ESSI, EIA, ASCII and EIARS 244 formats. And the entire inte- Hw I grated system is designed, manufactured and serviced by Gerber Scientific ... the proven name

  • MT Nov-13#50  AD features  RS-232 (standard ASCII string) digital  data)
    November 2013 - Marine Technology Reporter page: 50

    mounted anywhere on the ROV. New programmable, ultra- bright LED displays have brightness adjustments, and the 3000 AD features RS-232 (standard ASCII string) digital data output. Also, the unit is ROV 24V DC-powered, so there are no batteries to change. The kit includes an ROV II probe, an articulated

  • MT Nov-12#56  is reported  to be simple with ASCII data automatically delivered)
    November 2012 - Marine Technology Reporter page: 56

    Cyclops Integrator with sensors in one of the pre-de Þ ned Turner Designs optical head conÞ gurations. Data integration is reported to be simple with ASCII data automatically delivered at 1 second intervals only 3 seconds after power is applied. Standard opti- cal kits are available for detecting: in

  • MT Jun-10#33  data can be sent, including ASCII and binary, which is a)
    June 2010 - Marine Technology Reporter page: 33

    , it takes less time with less ambiguity. There is no need to repeat, and it is harder to intercept." All kind of digital data can be sent, including ASCII and binary, which is a totally new approach in underwater comms. This includes complex data gathered by autonomous underwater vehicles. "It is possible

  • MT Apr-09#44 . The program output is an ASCII mission file that is uploaded)
    April 2009 - Marine Technology Reporter page: 44

    such as undulate or spiral dive for data collection. Additionally, operators can click and drag any waypoints to edit a mission. The program output is an ASCII mission file that is uploaded to the AUV via a wireless interface prior to mission start. Volume Assessment Results retrieved from the AUV's. These

  • MT Sep-08#37  whale track data from an ASCII data source merged with)
    September 2008 - Marine Technology Reporter page: 37

    .myriax.com/applications/13400020/13400000) to complex 4-dimensional time series data. Figure 2 shows 4-dimensional whale track data from an ASCII data source merged with an array of acoustic backscatter transect data. The acoustic backscatter data, represent the presence and density of krill

  • MT Apr-07#49 , then spit out a stream of ascii data and call that a product)
    April 2007 - Marine Technology Reporter page: 49

    demands and expectations. Twenty years ago we could make a Doppler system that simply measured velocity accurately, then spit out a stream of ascii data and call that a product. Today our products must provide an entire array of features and collateral items well beyond the plain and simple Doppler measuremen

  • MT Sep-05#59  water level
& temperatures in ASCII or binary
format.  
The)
    September 2005 - Marine Technology Reporter page: 59

    II operates from 5.5V to 40VDC and has analog and RS232 serial data outputs. The serial data output string contains the water level & temperatures in ASCII or binary format. The Wave Staff II can be pro- grammed to free run or sample on demand. It is easily programmed via a PC serial port using

  • MT Apr-05#43 . The program output is an ASCII mis-
sion file that is)
    April 2005 - Marine Technology Reporter page: 43

    as undulate or spiral dive for data collection. Additionally, operators can click and drag any waypoints to edit a mission. The program output is an ASCII mis- sion file that is uploaded to the AUV via a wireless inter- face prior to mission start. Volume Assessment Results How data is represented

  • MR Nov-97#84 , NAV-
TEX, FEC, SITOR, ASCII and 
Morse code digital)
    November 1997 - Maritime Reporter and Engineering News page: 84

    (Continued from page 77) gram allows users of Windows PCS to receive charts, weather satellite photographs, radio teletype, NAV- TEX, FEC, SITOR, ASCII and Morse code digital news and weather broadcasts. By connecting the package's demodulator between the comput- er's serial port and a single

  • MR Jul-97#46  IGES, SAT, DXF, CADL, 
VDA, ASCII text and STL 
(SteroLithograph)
    July 1997 - Maritime Reporter and Engineering News page: 46

    are displayed in green. VERISURF will import and export CAD models using industry standard data translators such as IGES, SAT, DXF, CADL, VDA, ASCII text and STL (SteroLithography). CATIA EXP and AutoCAD DWG translators are available as an option. For more information on Verisurf Circle

  • MR Sep-96#10  CAD 
designs, text documents, ASCII 
files, video clips and)
    September 1996 - Maritime Reporter and Engineering News page: 10

    used to process this informa- tion. DM2 software can reportedly manage a mix of information, including raster images, CAD designs, text documents, ASCII files, video clips and audio files. Intergraph supplies interactive computer graphics systems and technical application software to governments

  • MR Dec-95#13  CAD designs, text 
documents, ASCII files, video clips 
or)
    December 1995 - Maritime Reporter and Engineering News page: 13

    . In a DM2 implementation, infor- mation can flow through the entire enterprise. Whether the data is raster images, CAD designs, text documents, ASCII files, video clips or audio files, the DM2 software suite manages the information and relationships betweenj«tCrmafcron. DM2 provides tjje-fneans^Mj

  • MR Sep-95#10  electronic documents such 
as ASCII or raster files. When)
    September 1995 - Maritime Reporter and Engineering News page: 10

    . Intergraph can tailor the interface to the specific needs of each site, providing access to external databases and electronic documents such as ASCII or raster files. When the user selects an object for which an attribute-data linkage has been defined, external data can be retrieved. In addition

  • MR Jun-94#3 , AMTOR, ARQ, ARQL, 
FEC, ASCII, BAUDOT, MORSE, B&W 
FAX)
    June 1994 - Maritime Reporter and Engineering News page: 3

    Ultra Low Cost Select Call All ITU Frequencies Compact 5. ARC 486 Multi-Mode HF Computer System: SITOR, PACTOR, AMTOR, ARQ, ARQL, FEC, ASCII, BAUDOT, MORSE, B&W FAX WEFAX, NAVTEX, TDM, ALE Compatible with most RS-232, PC based HF Radio systems 6. ARC 1000 HURRICANE 1000 Watt Multi-Mode