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portfolios of product and every major quirements, and operator preferences. PAO based compressor oils, the savings equipment manufacturer (OEM) of Capturing actual energy savings from in energy consumption and waste re- vessel propulsion systems has devel- incremental change is dif? cult but the- duction would be sizable.
oped an EAL response. The EPA VGP oretically available. For example, con- reporting database for 2018 lists over tainer ships carry hundreds of individ- K ’ R
LÜBER S OLE 200,000 vessels with 95,000 EAL ap- ual refrigerated containers each with its An example from Klüber’s contri- plications. Hence, EALs are now an own compressor unit. The operational bution to the marine industry is seen important part of any vessel sustain- gain from replacing one compressor in an improved gear oil used in POD ability program. with an energy ef? cient unit running propulsion that extends the life of the
To look beyond direct environmental on synthetic compressor oil may be oil, reduces damage to the compo- bene? ts of lubricant choice brings the small, but if all the compressors used nents and reduces downtime of the owner/operator into the realm of lubri- cant performance. Worldwide, consum- ers of energy utilize approximately 103 exajoules (1 EG = 1 quintillion joules) annually to simply overcome friction.
Another 16 EJ is used to remanufacture worn parts. Combined, energy used to overcome tribological contact accounts for approximately 23% of total world energy production (Holmberg, K. &
Erdemir, A. Friction  5: 263. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40544-017- 0183-5). It is easy to see that the proper use of specialty lubricants combined with advances in industrial design will in the future play a major role in reduc- ing energy consumption in the mari- time industry.
Land-based mechanical systems with constant loads and operated in stable environments allow for accu- rate measuring of energy inputs and outputs. Consider the oil now used in high performance car engines and how it extends the life of the engine and improves performance. In manufac- turing, Klüber Lubrication is working with customers to reduce energy con- sumption through detailed analysis of industrial gearbox arrays where in some cases a 15% reduction in energy consumption can be realized simply by choosing the correct lubricant.
Ef? ciency improvements on vessels are available, but they may be harder to document. Propulsion and cargo systems are in? uenced by changing environments, variable operating re- 23 www.marinelink.com MN
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