Page 109: of Offshore Engineer Magazine (Sep/Oct 2013)

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Pipelines offshore locations with by fashed gas, causing gas under-

Emulsion viscosity subsea wells carry downstream predictions n n Subsea systems with Stable foam formation in separators 8 long, tieback fowlines, and slug catchers that causes liquid 7 because of problems carryover to the gas treatment system 6 n with high viscosity Heavy oils with associated forma- 5 fuids that require tion-derived sand and fnes solids 4 relatively high restart production can further stabilize 3 pressures, following emulsions and drop out subsea and lengthy unplanned in topsides vessels to plug and erode 2 shutdowns internals and to reduce vessel resi- 1 n Variable tendencies of dence times.

0 n 0 10 20 30 40 50 60

Relative emulsion viscosity oil types to form stable Varying propensity to form pre- emulsions, including cipitated solids from the produc-

BS&W (%) differing amounts of tion fuids during production and

SPE 81511 loose SPE 81511 tight emulsifying agents depressurization while fowing to the

Woeflin loose Woeflin tight n surface, which can generate vari- High emulsion vis-

Ronningsen loose Ronningsen tight ous unwanted solids that form fow cosities, especially up

Barnes restrictions and even plug lines. to a critical maximum

Figure 2. Prediction of emulsion viscosity.

prior to the emulsion inversion point, Fig.1.

Case studies n slugging characteristics in surface Onerously slow oil-water separation and subsea pipelines (need to be rates linked to typically low oil-water

Offshore Western Australia density contrasts and high, continu- modelled) The facility involved offshore produc- n ous, oil-phase viscosities, unless the High, dynamic, oil viscosities caus- tion of heavy oils of between 17°API fuids are heated to 120°C or more to ing lifting issues in production wells, and 20°API gravity to a foating pro- lower the fuid viscosities which infuences lifting-mechanism duction, storage and offoading vessel n Swelling of the continuous oil phase selection, especially in remote, with common production facilities in

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