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THE EVOLUTION OF CLASS by many Flag States as a basis to determine their level of RO oversight and monitoring. Within the last decade. PSC regimes have increased in number and now include 10 regimes covering almost all of today’s ports where maritime trade is conducted.

In the US, ABS has had signifi cant authorization to act on behalf of the US Coast Guard since 1981 and this has been progressively expanded over the years. The USCG’s Alterna- tive Compliance Program has now been in place for nearly 20 years. This has always been accompanied by close com- munications and working relationships between USCG and

ABS personnel at all levels, as well as USCG involvement in

ABS Rule development, and a robust system of oversight and monitoring of ABS’ activities by the Coast Guard.

Roberto P. Cazzulo, RINA: The job carried out by classi- fi cation societies is closely scrutinized internally and by many external bodies, including fl ag Administrations, Port State

Controls, the IMO, the European Maritime Safety Agency (EMSA), the EU Quality Assessment and Certifi cation Entity (QACE) and Accredited Certifi cation Bodies (ACBs). The US

Coast Guard (USCG) verifi es the compliance of its Recognized

Organizations (RO), including RINA, as well as plays a leading role to verify vessels heading to US ports, both as Port State and as inspection body, for instance for cruise vessels built in

Europe. Findings and recommendations arising from these au- dits, inspections and controls are carefully considered for con- tinual improvement of our quality management systems. One of the requirements that is more carefully checked is how class societies are able to maintain objectivity and independence of third party assessments, carried out during construction and ship’s survey. Frankly speaking, we are concerned on how to deal with this number of internal and external audits and con- trols, without undermining the quality of our services.

Consolidation within the classifi cation society world has brought together great strengths, but also centered power and infl uence in fewer or- ganizations. What are the positives for the mar- itime industry?

Donche-Gay, BV: Consolidation is both normal and desir- able in classifi cation. Only global companies can have the re- sources to invest in the IT and research needed to stay abreast and ahead of new needs for bigger and more effi cient ships and more sophisticated offshore energy units. Only a global organization can deliver the services needed quickly wherever they are needed.

Johansen, DNV GL: Stronger companies, with a wider and denser network of stations can serve customers better, and de- velop distinct strengths and competence.

Ueda, ClassNK: As the maritime industry is truly global,

I think the growth and consolidation of classifi cation societ- ies may be a good thing for the industry. A developed global infrastructure allows class societies to support the maritime industry around the world, and also provides the resources necessary to contribute to the entire maritime industry.

Are there roles that Class should not take on?

If not, why not?

Johansen, DNV GL: We in DNV GL are very clear on this:

We do not design, build or operate assets on behalf of our cus- tomers. We contribute with conceptual ideas to the whole in- dustry, but we do not go into detailed design. Neither do we patent technology for commercial use. Instead, we contribute with ideas that we present to the entire industry, in line with our purpose of safeguarding life, property and the environment.

Bureau Veritas “ ”

We feel uncomfortable when we see class societies claiming to create a new design and then approve the same design wearing another hat.

Philippe Donche-Gay | Maritime Professional | 47

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Maritime Logistics Professional magazine is published six times annually.