Oil

  • In the 1930's, the medium-speed diesel engine came into its own as a prime mover in rail, marine, and stationary applications.

    It was soon realized by engine builders and o p e r a t o r s that Medium Viscosity Index (MVI) lube oils had distinct advantages in performance over High V i s c o s i t y Index (HVI) oils in these diesel engines.

    Historically, the preference for MVI lube oils is based primarily upon experience in 2-stroke, medium-speed diesel engines. This preference has carried over to 4-stroke designs also, although the benefits, while evident, are not as pronounced as in the 2-stroke engines.

    The main feature of the MVI lube oil is in the nature of the residual deposits formed in the engine as contrasted with the deposits formed by the HVI lubricants. Additives aside, the difference in the deposit formation by the two types of oil points up the excellent performance of MVI lube oil in service.

    In the infancy of the medium-speed diesel engine, as we now know it, oils were not compounded but were straight blends of refined lubricating oils. Performance of the lubricant was directly related to the base oil.

    It was soon found that MVI oils formed softer, less dense carbon deposits than HVI oils. The deposits formed by the HVI oils were harder, more adhesive, and tended to build up to high levels in deposit-prone areas.

    Deposits from the MVI oils, on the other hand, in addition to being softer tended to slough off and not build up beyond a certain low level as a result of normal engine operation.

    Even in today's modern oils, the carbon deposits reflect the nature of the base oils, MVI or HVI, regardless of the benefits of additives. Thus the benefits of MVI oil still apply, namely softer carbon deposits and less of them. Additive technology has improved the performance characteristics of both oils about equally, and the performance gap of the 1930's still exists.

    The effect of the carbon deposits is most noticeable in scavenging air and exhaust ports in 2-stroke engines and on the top lands and in ring grooves of the pistons in all engines.

    In 2-stroke medium-speed diesels, port blocking is an important factor in performance because of its effect on engine power.

    It is also an economic factor in the downtime and labor expense of port-cleaning operations.

    Deposits formed by MVI lube oils tend to be crumbly, and in the port area will build up to moderate and usually acceptable levels. However, once they attain these levels they are broken off by the normal aspiration of the engine and do not build up further.

    In some instances, the use of MVI oils will eliminate the need for any port cleaning between scheduled overhauls.

    HVI oils form more adhesive and dense carbon deposits in the port areas. These deposits build steadily, and engine aspiration during operation is usually insufficient to maintain them at a low level. These hard, dense deposits are difficult to remove and can require shutdown for laborious hand scraping.

    In one reported instance, Fairbanks Morse Model 38 opposed-piston engines required port cleaning after 1,500 hours operation with HVI oil. Downtime was lengthy and labor costs high. After switching to an MVI oil, the engines, when inspected, had operated in excess of 5,000 hours without portcleaning.

    Intake ports were 100 percent open, exhaust ports 90 percent open.

    Top land and ring groove deposits are the other most prominent points of carbon deposition.

    Here also, the softer, less adhesive deposits of the MVI oil are the least troublesome.

    The deposits are more easily removed by normal engine operation and do not build up to excessive levels on the top lands or in the ring grooves.

    The hard and adhesive HVI oil carbon deposits can, and often do, build up to excessive levels. This causes ring "proudness"; in effect, the deposit prevents the ring from recessing completely into the groove. And, the ring groove fill reduces ring side clearance, which can affect power output, oil consumption, and hydrocarbon emissions adversely.

    This can lead to ring sticking and ring breakage. In extreme cases in 2-stroke diesels, it also may cause port scalloping.

    Excessive carbon buildup on the top land of the piston caused by HVI lube oil can reduce clearances sufficiently to prevent combustion pressures from pushing rings against the cylinder liner normally for sealing. Again, the result is poor performance — power loss and increased oil consumption. In extreme cases, these land deposits also can cause excessive bore wear or "bore polishing." In this instance, in either 2-stroke or 4-stroke diesels, a power pack replacement can become necessary.

    The modern MVI lube oil is a far cry from the simple non-compounded oils of the 1930's.

    Additive technology has produced long-life oils with dispersant action to keep engines clean by keeping contaminants in suspension in the oil rather than depositing out on engine surfaces. High alkalinity (TBN-E) and excellent alkalinity retention help neutralize corrosive combustion products to reduce corrosive wear. Oxidation inhibitors and corrosion inhibitors protect both oil and engine.

    Filters last longer.

    Today's MVI lube oil provides the same advantages as its predecessor MVI oils in forming carbon deposits that are soft and friable; a benefit of an all-neutral oil. And, because of additives, many MVI oils can be used without change in 2-stroke diesels if their condition is closely monitored by a used-oil analysis program. Changing oil based on analysis will maximize oil life in all engine types.

    Projected availability of napthenic MVI lube stocks is shown in Figure 1, along with projected demand. About 1984/1985, total MVI lube stocks will be unable to fill the demand for conventional MVI oil applications.

    The switch from MVI to HVI base oils is already in progress. Overall, MVI lube stock availability is expected to decline by about 50 percent by 1990.

    Shell Oil Company presently manufactures MVI oil at its Martinez, Calif., refinery.

    This is the only Shell refinery currently producing MVI lube oils. However, in Texas, Shell has another source of MVI lube crude.

    To make this crude available as MVI lube oil, Shell is building a new addition to its Deer Park, Texas, plant. This expansion project is scheduled for completion by the end of 1980 and will more than double the company's supply of MVI lube oil. A further expansion of the Deer Park plant is already scheduled for 1984/1985, which will provide an additional 30 percent capacity.

    In addition to increased MVI base oil supply, distribution East of the Rockies will be facilitated by the plant expansions.

    Shell believes that the majority of engine builders and operators will prefer to operate engines with MVI lube oils for as long as possible. The successful use of these oils in medium-speed diesels is documented by a long history of successful performance. It behooves the operator to conserve present supplies as much as possible to help the future supply position.

    With modern high quality MVI lube oils having the capability of extremely long oil life, with good engine protection, the implementation of a used-oil analysis program can be helpful in determining when (or even if ever) oil needs changing. In addition, such an analysis program is a useful maintenance tool when trace metals analysis is included.

    With such a program, oil is changed only when necessary, if at all. This saves valuable MVI lube crude reserves, and can save money. It also can help detect engine problems and avert untimely breakdowns that can be costly.

    With the additional MVI lube supply being placed in the market by Shell Oil Company's expansions, and operator conservation (such as that outlined above), the crossover point on Figure 1, demand exceeding supply, can possibly be extended

  • to burn heavy residual fuels with high sulfur content, has placed increasing demands on the petroleum industry to improve their products. The oil producers have responded by offering new and reformulated marine lubricants, including highly alkaline cylinder oils to protect against the acidity

  • No two oil spill response operations are the same.  Each can present new and even tougher challenges for spill responders as they detect, contain and recover spilled oil. Diverse aspects affecting oil spill response operations can be the physical environment, spill monitoring, use of chemical dispersants

  • Engine Maintenance trumps a tough economy. Bypass oil filtration technology is one way to get there. For the past several years, ferry service and tugboat operators have had one eye on fuel costs and the other on the economy. But worry as they might, there’s not much, if anything, that operators can do to

  • Castrol Limited International Marine, a Burmah company, is offering a free, recently published 56- page lube oil guide and marine service directory. The fully indexed publication is organized into six main sections— "Important Information," which covers some pertinent company policies; "Castrol

  • A revolutionary new commercial waste oil dehydrator is presently beginning "on stream" operations after its recent installation on the Houston Ship Channel. The new, multi-effect dehydrator will be operated by Oil Processors of Texas under a franchised lease agreement covering virtually all of the Gulf

  • B.R. Martin has been named president of Korea Gulf Oil Company, according to R.W. Baldwin, president of Gulf Refining & Marketing Company (GORAM). Mr. Martin replaces S.K. Mc- Walter, who is returning to Gulf Oil Canada, Ltd. He will represent Gulf Oil Corporation in all aspects of its business in

  • Spill Response: Elastec’s Grooved Skimming Technology   Cleaning up marine oil spills can be a challenge as there are various types of oil spilled but only a few effective recovery methods. The three main technologies for oil spill recovery for inland and offshore waters are mechanical, insitu burning

  • "Due to increasing demand and reducing reserves, oil prices currently at $40 are likely to soon enter a period of sustained rises resulting in a need to massively develop natural gas and renewable energy resources" according to John Westwood of energy analysts Douglas-Westwood. "Oil reserves are

  • In general the floating production sector looks healthy and growth remains strong. But the sudden expansion of shale oil and tight oil production could disrupt the growth trajectory in the deepwater sector. Deepwater The underlying drivers for deepwater development point toward continued sector growth.

  • How Ester-Based Oils Handle Hydrolysis to Remain the Top EAL for VGP When the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued the new Vessel General Permit (VGP) in December 2013, lubricant and fluid manufacturers were prepared to give vessel owners a number of environmentally acceptable lubricants (EAL) to

  • A delegation of French maritime experts recently visited Oil Mop, Inc. headquarters, Belle Chasse, La. 70037, to learn more about cleaning up oil spills under adverse sea, weather and shore conditions. The Frenchmen visited New Orleans on a tour sponsored by the U.S. Coast Guard as part of the U.S.

  • MT Apr-19#60  be 
ancy solutions for offshore oil & gas  clamps, hardware)
    April 2019 - Marine Technology Reporter page: 60

    to the sur- large and growing product line of buoy- buoyancy, framework, instrument face. Signi? cantly, the system can be ancy solutions for offshore oil & gas clamps, hardware and ballast. Systems designed for depths as great as 6000 and technology companies. Though it are customized per the ?

  • MT Apr-19#59  winches with  trial and oil and gas industries. Based)
    April 2019 - Marine Technology Reporter page: 59

    of ers in the marine, construction, indus- Hawboldt Industries Hawboldt is a designer and manufac- rental equipment includes winches with trial and oil and gas industries. Based turer of custom-built Launch and Recov- a variety of cables, mobile A-frames in in New Orleans, La., with locations in ery

  • MT Apr-19#47  21
APRILMAYJUNE
Ocean Energy: Oil, Wind & Tidal Underwater)
    April 2019 - Marine Technology Reporter page: 47

    AUVSI XPONENTIAL April 9-11, Southampton, UK Mar 29- Apr 2 Chicago, IL Ad Close: Mar 21 Ad Close: Apr 21 Ad Close: May 21 APRILMAYJUNE Ocean Energy: Oil, Wind & Tidal Underwater Defense Technology Hydrographic Survey: Single & Multibeam Sonar Workclass ROV Navy Research Institutions Underwater Lights

  • MT Apr-19#45  subsea cable players serving oil  clients looking on and)
    April 2019 - Marine Technology Reporter page: 45

    dent Birkeland says. It’s a bold other infrastructure, as well as access to potential future wind statement in Norway, where subsea cable players serving oil clients looking on and a chance to see breakthrough innova- and gas are well-known and well-capitalized. tions ? nd immediate use. Sustainable Energy

  • MT Apr-19#44  subsea operations in offshore oil and gas.    pacity for)
    April 2019 - Marine Technology Reporter page: 44

    oating marine wind installations — as ef? cient as surface have tested a prototype and are now building a pilot with ca- and subsea operations in offshore oil and gas. pacity for 500 (metric tons),” Unitech Subsea Systems CEO, The Norwegian start-up program features The Sustainable Gunnar Birkeland, tells

  • MT Apr-19#41  and experi-
ence of offshore oil and gas (risers, umbilical)
    April 2019 - Marine Technology Reporter page: 41

    slurry. Another pipe adjoining the lift pipe returns seawater back to the ocean. So, deepsea mining combines the tech and experi- ence of offshore oil and gas (risers, umbilical, surveys and “drones”) with the experience of dredging; nearshore dia- mond and gold mining and the land-based mining industry

  • MT Apr-19#38  pipeline inspection work for oil company 
awareness systems”)
    April 2019 - Marine Technology Reporter page: 38

    just acquired a HUGIN AUV from Kongsberg Mar- In all, INESC TEC developed the “perception, navigation and itime after doing pipeline inspection work for oil company awareness systems” for the mining vehicle and EVA robot (to- Equinor. In a press release, the Singapore-based out? t said gether the same

  • MT Apr-19#32  services. When 
at offshore oil and gas and renewables)
    April 2019 - Marine Technology Reporter page: 32

    . speed and payload. The company’s vision is for its HAUVs to operate in? eld Modus’ background is in subsea trenching services. When at offshore oil and gas and renewables sites, including wind the company was looking to invest in new technology, it felt farms, independent of service vessels. This

  • MT Apr-19#28  and 
The customer base in oil and gas has sent clear)
    April 2019 - Marine Technology Reporter page: 28

    are pressing to enable vehicle delivery to site ef? ciently and safely. ahead, laser focused on innovating new business models and The customer base in oil and gas has sent clear signals to technology to truly ful? ll customer needs. Image: Houston Mechatronics Image: Houston Mechatronics April 2019 28

  • MT Apr-19#26  on topside fa-
outside of oil and gas. Businesses like)
    April 2019 - Marine Technology Reporter page: 26

    robotics enable. disruptive business models in the commercial service sector In virtual residency, vehicles will be stowed on topside fa- outside of oil and gas. Businesses like Uber, AirBnB, Alibaba cilities scattered around ocean hotspots or stowed subsea in and Amazon have all transformed our personal

  • MT Apr-19#25  hard to change.  When the oil and  spond with innovation)
    April 2019 - Marine Technology Reporter page: 25

    , in turn, has This demand from the customer base resulted in business models which are has forced service companies to re- very hard to change. When the oil and spond with innovation. The response: gas downturn began, very few com- Resident sea? oor technology (Resi- panies revisited the balance of their

  • MT Apr-19#24  effects of the ‘downturn’ in oil  very useful) vessel ?)
    April 2019 - Marine Technology Reporter page: 24

    ser- Wwe have in the industry? vice companies to lower their reliance on the ubiquitous (and For the past few years the effects of the ‘downturn’ in oil very useful) vessel ? eet, because vessels are expensive. and gas have dominated the industry’s technology roadmap. Most subsea businesses are hamstrung

  • MT Apr-19#23  oceanic epidemics that are im-
Oil & Gas Defence
pacting our)
    April 2019 - Marine Technology Reporter page: 23

    Press will release Harvell’s new book, “Ocean Outbreak: Confronting the Rising Tide of Marine Disease,” on the oceanic epidemics that are im- Oil & Gas Defence pacting our food chain and proposing solutions to slow a looming global en- vironmental disaster. +33 (0)297 898 580 http://rtsys.eu/en www

  • MT Apr-19#4  year recovery of the offshore oil and gas industry. Make)
    April 2019 - Marine Technology Reporter page: 4

    , this industry is on solid footing and on the rise again following the trauthwein@marinelink.com collapse and protracted 4+ year recovery of the offshore oil and gas industry. Make no mistake, the offshore business, a critical piece in the pace, direction and development of Contributing Writers Justin Manley

  • MT May-19#62  21
APRILMAYJUNE
Ocean Energy: Oil, Wind & Tidal Underwater)
    May 2019 - Marine Technology Reporter page: 62

    AUVSI XPONENTIAL April 9-11, Southampton, UK Mar 29- Apr 2 Chicago, IL Ad Close: Mar 21 Ad Close: Apr 21 Ad Close: May 21 APRILMAYJUNE Ocean Energy: Oil, Wind & Tidal Underwater Defense Technology Hydrographic Survey: Single & Multibeam Sonar Workclass ROV Navy Research Institutions Underwater Lights

  • MT May-19#36  the expansion of berths, fuel oil tanks and stor- Development)
    May 2019 - Marine Technology Reporter page: 36

    an intermediate section was identi? ed, in The agreement between Brazil and France for the Subsea order to allow the expansion of berths, fuel oil tanks and stor- Development Program (PROSUB) has three basic premises: age spaces, thus increasing the original capacity of our sub- technology transfer

  • MT May-19#31  Renewable 
Energies
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During the)
    May 2019 - Marine Technology Reporter page: 31

    was working with a prototype links as a requirement to make this vi- green light wavelength in order to keep Marine MammalsOffshore Renewable Energies Oil & Gas Defence During the Nekton mission, two manned submersibles were ? tted with BlueComms to transmit live video to the surface, then on to worldwide

  • MT May-19#25  DOLPHIN has also  mercially the oil and gas, and to a 
shown)
    May 2019 - Marine Technology Reporter page: 25

    ,PDJLQJ6RQDUV full-duplex telemetry. waters and in the surf zone. Com- 6LQJOHDQG'XDO)UHTXHQF\WRN+] In sonar testing DOLPHIN has also mercially the oil and gas, and to a shown promise. To date work has lesser extent offshore renewables, are modelled 100% reconstruction of an looking to sea? oor

  • MT May-19#15  Forces
•
 Commercial OEM
•
 Oil & Gas
GREENSEA
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    May 2019 - Marine Technology Reporter page: 15

    engineers. Visit Greensea.com or call 802.434.6080 to learn more about application-specific configurations • EOD & Special Forces • Commercial OEM • Oil & Gas GREENSEA ©2019 Greensea Systems, Inc. ® ® Greensea , OPENSEA are registered trademarks of Greensea Systems, Inc. MTR #1 (1-17).indd 3 1/25/2019

  • MT May-19#14 ?  ects a diversity in bi-
The Oil Chimney Landscape.
Image:)
    May 2019 - Marine Technology Reporter page: 14

    vibrant colors found on terdisciplinary research team discovered large venting min- the ‘living rocks’ was striking, and re? ects a diversity in bi- The Oil Chimney Landscape. Image: Schmidt Ocean Institute May 2019 14 MTR MTR #4 (1-17).indd 14 4/25/2019 9:02:24 A

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    May 2019 - Maritime Reporter and Engineering News page: 94

    3 213 53 00 info@hydrex.us www.hydrex.us Got Noise? HYDRAULIC SUPPRESSOR EŽs?G?^SŽÐU?ssd?AOŽYTW?u?AOŽYsY Y?sGl?^wŽŽlS&uŽ?K?l Bladder Esl?ŽOGY;du?G? Oil dS?GG^lAOGEŽs?GTW?u?AOŽYsY ZGE?ÐOŽYSAwdG? QUALITY NACOL ACCUMULATORS ?>ŽYO>A?OYO?EŽ^GAw?WuGAlGEuAEEG?? ?&Ž?OGE?SGuu??YŽ?GuE? THE ORIGINAL PRECISION

  • MR May-19#88  new two-stroke 
engine cylinder oil speci?  cally for use with)
    May 2019 - Maritime Reporter and Engineering News page: 88

    P PRODUCTS Shell Launches Alexia 40 Shell Marine is introducing Shell Alexia 40 – with a Base Number of 40 – a new two-stroke engine cylinder oil speci? cally for use with en- gines running on 0.5% sulfur content Very Low Sulphur Fuel Oil (VLSFO). Shell Alexia 40 has undergone thousands of hours of

  • MR May-19#76 .)
intermediate fuel oil (IFO380 = 3.5%  haust gas)
    May 2019 - Maritime Reporter and Engineering News page: 76

    bunker price was $465 for capex investment for scrubbers or ex- ide (NOx) emissions for compliance in Control Area requirements.) intermediate fuel oil (IFO380 = 3.5% haust gas solutions NOx Emission Control Areas such as the 4. Using a combination of all sulphur) and $745 for marine gasoil 3. Use

  • MR May-19#74   higher cost low sulphur fuel oil (LSFO)  nologies which)
    May 2019 - Maritime Reporter and Engineering News page: 74

    mercial vessel operators can purchase electric systems that adopt hybrid tech- Maritime Organization (IMO) issued higher cost low sulphur fuel oil (LSFO) nologies which integrate energy storage. Regulations, fuel costs & availability “IMO 2020 Rule” to cut fuel sulphur or marine gasoil (MGO)—or