— I m p r o v e d C y l i n d e r A n d C r a n k c a s e O i l s— The trend toward upgrading output and efficiency of marine diesel engines, as well as improving their ability to burn heavy residual fuels with high sulfur content, has placed increasing demands on the petroleum industry to improve their products. The oil producers have responded by offering new and reformulated marine lubricants, including highly alkaline cylinder oils to protect against the acidity resulting from the burning of residual fuels, and improved system oils to meet the severe-service demands of the latest engines.

The following review is based on data supplied by the major U.S.

producers of marine lubricants.

Tree brochures and data sheets giving full details on the formulations and capabilities of these oils are available from all of the producers included in this review. To obtain copies, just circle the appropriate Reader Service Number(s) on the postage-paid card in the back of this issue.

BP MARINE C i r c l e 4 2 on Reader Service Card During the past 30 years, the lowspeed crosshead diesel engine has established itself as the preeminent power plant for marine propulsion.

Two major factors contributed to this success story. One was the engine's ability to run on low-cost, heavy residual fuels, and thus combine maximum economic benefits with the already low specific fuel consumption of this design. The other was the oil industry's development of highly alkaline cylinder oils.

BP's Energol CLO 50M marine cylinder oil was formulated specifically to neutralize the acidic products of combustion formed by these high-sulfur fuels—a lubricant that gives the shipowner an ideal balance between low running costs and low wear rates in all modern engines.

Energol CLO 50M is formulated from a blend of high-quality base oils and a balanced combination of alkaline, detergent, and dispersant additives. Together they provide an outstanding level of lubrication, despite the acidic conditions that arise where heavy residual fuels are burned.

The alkalinity of CLO 50M neutralizes acidic products of combustion that would otherwise attack liners, pistons, piston rings, and ring grooves. Its high level of detergency helps to keep grooves, lands, skirts, and ports clean and deposit-free.

The high level of detergency helps to maintain a high state of internal cleanliness, and keeps cylinder drainings and scavenge space deposits in a fluid state, for ease of drainage.

BP's Energol OE-M 30 has long been associated with the successful lubrication of the crankcase systems of crosshead marine diesel engines.

Increased automation, reduced shipboard manning levels, and, probably more significantly, changes in engine operational practices, have led to a reduction in the use of water-washing to maintain system oil condition. The availability of improved additive technology has enabled the development of Energol OE-M 30 (New Formula).

Energol OE-M 30 (New Formula) is recommended for the crankcase system of crosshead marine diesel engines, and is suitable for use in engines with either water- or oilcooled pistons. It has been approved by all major engine manufacturers, but for some engine types with more severe system oil operating conditions, a higher total base number (TNB) alkaline oil such as BP Energol DL-MP 30 may be preferred. In addition to its application in crankcases, it is also recommended for camshaft systems, shaft bearings, stern tubes and seals, air compressors, small gearboxes, and for general lubrication.

Energol OE-M 30 (New Formula) is formulated using the latest additive technology. It has excellent water separation properties, has improved thermal/oxidiation stability properties, and also displays improved anti-rust performance characteristics.

The new additive system also imparts a degree of acid neutralizing alkalinity and detergency/ dispersancy properties.

Energol IC-HF high-quality, crankcase/cylinder oils for mediumspeed diesels have an established reputation for the effective lubrication of engines burning heavy fuel.

Recent trends indicate that higher levels of alkalinity will be needed if engine protection is to be maintained.

BP has anticipated this requirement with a new, improved range of Energol IC-HF (Internal Combustion-Heavy Fuel) oils.

In the reformulation of Energol IC-HF, selected base oils give thermal stability and effective bearing lubrication, while the newly developed additive combination provides alkalinity, detergency, dispersancy, anti-oxidation, gear-lubrication performance, and rust prevention. ICHF oils insure low rates of wear and high levels of engine cleanliness, thereby enabling engines to perform efficiently and economically.

With the new IC-HF oils there is a complete range from which the user can choose. They offer a choice of three TBNs, and are designed to meet all the demands imposed by residual fuels for engines currently in service and for those likely to be introduced in the near future. Moreover, the nomenclature of these grades enables the user to identify the characteristics at a glance, and thus select the grade that suits the particular requirements.

CHEVRON C i r c l e 4 3 on Reader Service Card Fifty years of experience are behind Chevron International Oil Company's DELO (Diesel Engine Lube Oil) products, Now the company offers an improved line of marine trunk piston engine oils to lubricate the medium-speed diesels of today and the future. Mediumspeed diesel engines of today operate at higher outputs and on a wide range of varying-quality fuels.

Chevron's improved line of truck piston engine oils exceed the challenging lubrication demands of today's engines. They provide: better thermal and oxidation stability; improved detergency and dispersancy (deposit control); excellent alkalinity and base retention; higher wear protection; and good water tolerence.

The excellent performance of these improved lube oils is backed by many hours of severe laboratory testing—engine and bench tests—as well as field testing in the latest design, highly rated trunk piston engines. The products are approved by the leading engine manufacturers.

Further, DELO marine oils are compatible with all engine lubricants currently marketed.

Thermal and oxidation stability are prime requisites for trunk piston engine oils for today's engines.

Higher specific output engines using heavier fuel produce higher liner surface and piston temperatures.

The lube oil must possess a high thermal stability to withstand the high thermal stresses involved in removing combustion heat. The resistance to oxidation of the new DELO marine is said to be oustanding.

All the reformulated Chevron DELO marine oils meet the requirements of the API Service Classification CD and pass the MWM-B test.

Chevron DELO 1000 marine oil is recommended for all types of trunk piston diesel engines using relative high sulfur distillate fuel or black marine diesel oil.

DELO 2000 and 3000 marine oils are suitable for trunk piston engines burning residual fuels with a maximum sulfur level of 2.5 and 3.5 mass percent, respectively.

DELO 3400 marine oil will satisfy those applications where a lubricant with high alkalinity is desired or specifically recommended by the engine manufacturer.

Available in SAE Grades 30 and 40, the reformulated DELO marine oils are approved by all major engine builders for use in their medium- speed engines.

From the experience obtained with the reformulated Chevron DELO marine oils in extended laboratory and field testing, these oils are said to provide: long engine life; long oil life; low engine maintenance costs; trouble-free engine operation; and economic operation.

CUMMINS C i r c l e 4 4 on Reader Service Card Cummins P^ngine Company recently announced availability of its Premium Blue engine oil for the marine market. Cummins reports this premium 15W-40 oil contains additives selected to maximize the performance of heavy-duty diesel engines.

Paul A. Bennett, director-fuel and lubricants, and the chief designer of the product, stated: "Owners and operators are increasingly coming to realize that not all oils are created equal. Cummins has decided that the company can provide valuable service by making an oil that represents the best available technology focused on improving engine durability. Premium Blue is that oil." Cummins Premium Blue is the culmination of more than six years of service experience with a variety of commercial oils, and more than four years of field testing. Some 30 Cummins oil evaluation tests were also run before the final oil formulation was established.

Modern, high-performance diesel engine oils are complex mixtures of base oils and additives. The base oils in Premium Blue are mineral oils refined from selected crudes.

Base oil is the predominant component of the blend. The remainder of the formulation is a mixture of a number of chemical additives. It is the selection and balance of these additives that imparts unique performance characteristics to superior oils.

Mr. Bennett also stressed the fact that superior performance can only be achieved by the proper marriage of an application, an engine, the oil, and the oil change interval.

All oils become contaminated and additives are neutralized or used up in use. As this occurs, oil performance may decrease rapidly and the oil should be changed before there is an adverse effect on the engine.

The additives in Premium Blue include materials that modify base stock characteristics with respect to such factors as viscosity, detergency, dispersancy, wear, oxidiation, corrosion, pour point, and foam.

In any multi-viscosity oil, a major additive is the viscosity index improver.

This additive works to thicken the base oil more at high temperatures than at low temperatures so the resultant product can perform similarly to a low-viscosity oil (15W) at low temperatures and like a higher-viscosity oil (40) at high temperatures.

"Viscosity is an important oil property, " Mr. Bennett said. "The viscosity should be low enough at low temperatures to flow to critical engine parts on cold starts, and sufficient to control wear, leakage, noise, and consumption at operating temperatures. Excessive oil viscosity can result in bearing damage on cold starts, hard starting, loss of power, cooling problems, and increased fuel consumption," he said.

Premium Blue contains high concentrations of detergents, dispersents, and oxidation inhibitors to reduce the rate of formation of deposit- forming materials. Those materials that do form are suspended in the oil so that they can be removed from the engine when the oil is drained.

Also included are anti-wear additives to reduce engine wear rates, corrosion inhibitors to control the tendency of critical parts to corrode, pour point depressants to reduce the tendency for the oil to solidify at low temperatures, and antifoam additives to reduce oil foaming on air-entrainment characteristics.

"The selection and blending of the additives used in Premium Blue are the result of the combined efforts of many engine, oil additives, and petroleum people," Mr. Bennett said. "Cummins Premium Blue represents today's best proven engine technology and is a positive step in the campaign to reduce end user operating costs." Premium Blue was first launched more than 1 'A years ago in the Southeastern U.S. Since then, availability has spread throughout the entire U.S. and Canada. In the U.S., Premium Blue is available in bulk, 55-gallon drums, gallons, and quart bottles. In Canada, it may be purchased in bulk, 205-liter drums, 20- liter pails, and 4-liter jugs.

E X X ON C i r c l e 4 5 on Reader Service Card Exxon's De-Mar XT crankcase lubricant is the latest advance in the long-established line of De-Mar lubes for diesel engines in river towboats, tugs, and other harbor craft.

It is formulated to meet the severeservice demands imposed by the newer engines.

De-Mar XT was field-tested in diesel engines manufactured by General Electric Company and the Electro-Motive Division of General Motors. These field tests culminated in its approval by GE as a Superior Class II Lubricating Oil, and recognition of its quality by EMD. De-Mar X T is a LMOA Generation 4 lubricant. Caterpillar approves the use of De-Mar X T in its most advanced engine series, the 3600, as well as in its 3400 and 3500 engines.

The newest improvements in GE and EMD engines are modified piston rings and cylinder liners that have cut oil consumption in half.

This places an extra burden on the oil because of the drastic reduction in the amount of fresh oil makeup.

In addition, the operating practice of extending oil drain periods is becoming more prevalent, further increasing demands on the oil. De- Mar XT, with its good base number retention, provides excellent lubrication even under these conditions.

De-Mar X T performed outstandingly in Caterpillar's 3601 singlecylinder engine test, which was used to predict crankcase oil performance in Cat's high-output diesel engine in marine applications. At the conclusion of the 250-hour test, top land carbon levels (the most critical rating in this application) were very low, and there was no evidence of stuck rings.

De-Mar XT has been shown to reduce existing deposit levels in engines where oils with lower dispersant characteristics have been used, and it maintains lower deposit levels than are common with conventional oils. In EMD engines, De-Mar XT works to keep the intake ports clean, and ring and cylinder wear has been minimal in all tests. The product is non-corrosive to silver bearings and all other engine metals.

De-Mar XT incorporates proven proprietary friction-reducing technology for greater fuel efficiency.

Tests of the product in EMD engines have demonstrated statistically significant fuel savings when the lube is used in place of a comparable non-friction-reducing oil. These savings will vary depending on engine operating conditions.

For use in auxiliary engines, Exxon's XD-3 Extra, XD-3, and Exxon Heavy Duty engine oils, all API Category CD/SF oils, are the primary recommendations for engines (such as Cat and Detroit) requiring API CD quality oils. However, De-Mar XT has been proven to provide satisfactory performance in these engines. Detroit Diesel now recognizes the increasing use of highersulfur- content fuels and allows the use of oils with ash content above 1.0 percent to cope with these fuels.

Therefore, De-Mar X T can conveniently be used to lubricate both main and auxiliary engines.

MOBIL Circle 46 on Reader Service Card Mobilgard 570 is a superior quality marine diesel engine cylinder oil formulated to provide outstanding performance in high-output crosshead engines. These highly loaded crosshead diesels are operated on heavy fuel oil with high sulfur content in order to reduce operating costs. Concurrently, advances in engine thermodynamics have permitted decreases in specific fuel consumption from 155 to 125 grams per bhp-hour. These changes in engine design for greater fuel efficiency, the use of higher viscosity residual fuels, and the need for reduced maintenance have increased the requirements on crosshead cylinder oil.

Mobilgard 570 was developed to provide high load-carrying characteristics, improved spreadability, tenacious film retention, and to minimize port and piston deposits.

Because of its high alkalinity (70 Total Base Number), it provides better protection against corrosive wear by neutralizing large amounts of strong acids. This oil is compatible with oils normally used in the crankcase of crosshead engines.

Mobilgard 300 was developed especially for use as a system oil in modern, high-output, crosshead type marine diesel engines. The system oil must provide adequate lubrication of the bearings and other moving parts, such as cams and gears, and proper cooling, particularly in the pistons in crosshead engines so designed. The recent design trend in these engines has been in the direction of greater specific outputs, which has led to much higher piston operating temperatures than were normal for the previous generation of engines.

Mobilgard 300 is formulated from highly treated paraffinic base oils that are selected for their thermal stability and oxidation resistance.

The inherent base oil characteristics are augmented with a balanced additive package including hightemperature oxidation inhibitors, alkaline detergent-dispersant, and defoamant. The formulation has maximum antiwear properties, good rust protection in the presence of salt water, and excellent water separation characteristics.

The Mobilbard 42 Series of marine lubricating oils has been developed to supplement the Mobilgard 24 Series (30 TBN) oils for the lubrication of modern high-output, medium-speed trunk diesel engines used for the propulsion of oceangoing vessels and ferries.

Mobilgard 42 oils have an alkalinity level of 40 TBN and are therefore particularly suitable for engines that show indications of corrosive wear to cylinder liners and/or piston rings. Mobilgard 342 and 442 are diesel engine lubricating oils made from high-quality base stocks, combined with specially selected stable additives to provide excellent performance under varying loads and temperature conditions. Careful selection of base stocks and additives for the Mobilgard 42 Series has resulted in an engine oil with wellbalanced properties.

The Mobilgard 24 Series oils were developed originally to meet the requirements of medium-speed, trunk piston diesel engines used for main propulsion and as auxiliary drives on deepsea ships, and a main propulsion engines on coastal and river vessels. The Series was reformulated recently to provide improved performance in the new, higher-output versions of these engines now coming into service.

The Mobilgard 24 Series oils are formulated to provide the higher load-carrying ability required to control ring and liner wear in these higher-output engines, and to maintain satisfactory engine cleanliness regardless of the quality of fuel used. In addition, they will provide improved performance in older design engines where the demands on the lubricating oil are not as severe.

Mobilgard SHC 120 is a 12 TBN synthetic, medium-speed diesel lubricant.

It contains a balanced blend of synthesized hydrocarbons and ester-based fluids, combined with an additive system designed to provide optimum performance in diesel engines. Although its measured viscosity indicates that it is an SAE 40 grade, this oil's inherent high viscosity index enables it to perform similar to an SAE 15W-40 viscosity grade diesel engine lubricant.

It exceeds the qualification standard for an API CD rated diesel engine lubricant.

SHELL OIL C i r c l e 4 7 on Reader S e r v i c e C a rd A wide range of Shell Oil Company's marine lubricants is available at main ports throughout the world.

The more important grades, intended for the lubrication of diesel engines, are described below, together with an indication of their principal applications.

Shell Alexia oils are for lubrication of large marine crosshead-type diesel engines. They have exceptional acid-neutralizing powers and are specially designed to combat high cylinder wear in engines burning heavy fuel oil. They also have outstanding cleanliness properties that enable them to minimize deposit formation on pistons and in cylinders.

Shell Melina oils are highly versatile, multipurpose heavy-duty lubricants specifically designed to meet crankcase/system oil requirements of high-, medium-, and low-speed engines used both for main propulsion and auxiliary power generation.

They are also suitable for many items of oil-lubricated, ancillary shipboard machinery. Melina S oil gives the same level of protection as Melina oil in low-speed engines, only without the additional performance for use in auxiliary engines, and is thus lower in cost.

Shell Bela oil is a system oil for low-speed crosshead engines. It contains additives that give protection against rust and oxidation. In addition, it has good compatibility with water so that, if necessary, it can be water-washed safely.

Shell Argina oils are combined cylinder and bearing system oils for highly rated, medium-speed trunk type engines burning heavy fuels.

Argina T is the primary grade for most applications. Argina X oil is specially fortified for certain high basicity requirements. Argina S oil is designed for auxiliary engines burning lower-viscosity thin fuel oils, where sulfur levels are more moderate.

Shell Gadinia oils are combined cylinder and bearing system oils for highly rated medium-speed and h i g h - s p e e d engines. Shell's BHGJ8616401 is designed for engines burning distillate fuels only.

They are also multi-functional suitable for many other shipboard machinery applications.

Rimula oils are fully detergent, special-duty oils having outstanding anti-wear and protective properties.

They are highly resistant to oxidation, and are designed to retard the onset of ring sticking, and preserve engine cleanliness under severe conditions.

Shell Caprinus q>ls, although they contian additives to provide alkalinity, dispersance, and resistance to oxidation, contain no zinc additive and thus may be used in engines fitted with silver parts.

TEXACO C i r c l e 4 8 on R e a d e r S e r v i c e C a rd Texaco's Marine Star Lubricants are offered in a variety of formulations that are available worldwide to meet the needs of all types of marine diesel engines.

TARO Special is a premium quality cylinder lubricant for large, lowspeed crosshead diesels burning heavy residual fuels. It is blended from highly refined, mixed napthenic and paraffinic base oils and oilsoluble additives to produce a very high alkaline reserve product (70 TBN) with good lubricant film strength.

This product is approved by the major marine crosshead engine manufacturers. TARO Special has been extensively field tested and has given excellent performance when used under the most severe operating conditions. It is specially formulated to prevent corrosive wear that can result from the use of high-sulfur fuels. In addition, the high-quality base oils and high detergent level of TARO Special helps minimize ring belt deposits. Viscosity Grade is SAE 50.

DORO AR 30 is a premium crankcase lubricant for large low-speed crosshead engines. This product, blended from highly refined solvent neutral oils and carefully selected additives to produce a moderate alkaline reserve (6 TBN) oil, provides good water separability, anti-wear, and rust and oxidation inhibition.

The specially selected high-temperature anti-oxidant makes DORO AR 30 particularly suited for those engines using oil-cooled pistons and for applications using the circulating oil for turbocharger lubrication.

The TARO XD oils are Texaco's medium-alkalinity (15 TBN) diesel engine crankcase lubricants for medium- and high-speed trunk type engines operating on fuels with sulfur contents up to 1.8 percent.

Blended from carefully refined base oils in combination with a specially developed additive package, TARO XD is an API CD level product meeting all the major diesel engine manufacturers' requirements for this type of engine oil.

TARO XD has been extensively tested under both laboratory and field environments. It provides excellent engine cleanliness as a result of its carefully balanced detergent system, and prevents engine corrosion by neutralizing acidic combustion products. The excellent TBN retention characteristics of this product provide long in-life service.

The presence of a service-proven oxidation inhibiting additive system results in a high resistance to oxidative degradation of the oil. It is available in SAE viscosity grade 30 and 40.

The TARO DP Series are highly alkaline (30 TBN) oils specifically designed to lubricate mediumspeed, trunk-type engines that utilize fuel with a sulfur content in excess of 1.8 percent. Blended from carefully refined base oils fortified with a specially developed additive package, TARO DP series has provided excellent laboratory and field test results. This API~ CD level product, although primarily recommended as a crankcase lubricant, is also perfectly satisfactory as a cylinder lubricant in medium-speed engines with separate cylinder lubrication.

It is highly resistant to oxidation degradation, and affords excellent anti-wear activity. Its TBN retention properties give excellent anti-corrosion protection over long periods of operations. The TARO DP detergent and dispersant additives help protect against deposition of high-temperature carbon and low-temperature sludge, thus promoting good overhaul life. It is available in SAE 30 and 40 viscosity grades.

Texaco's Ursa Oil Extra Duty Series are premium API CC, MIL-L- 2104B quality level lubricants.

Blended from highly refined paraffinic solvent neutral oils and a selected additive package, this product series provides the required degree of anti-wear protection and helps minimize excessive deposit formation. The carefully balanced anti-oxidant additive system provides a product with a proven high degree of oxidation and corrosion resistance. It is available in SAE 30 and 40 viscosity grades.

Maritime Reporter Magazine, page 46,  Jul 15, 1986

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