DIESEL POWER REVIEW

Latest Developments In Fuel-Efficient Engines For The World's Merchant Fleets While fuel costs continue on their upward spiral, and fuel quality continues to decline, the manufacturers of marine diesels have been busy designing new engine types and redesigning older model lines. Some companies have produced totally new designs; others have made design improvements to their proven lines. All have a common goal: to improve fuel efficiency even while burning lower quality residuals, and to reduce maintenance costs.

We asked the major diesel manufacturers to tell us about their latest developments; this review is based on their replies.

Alco Power Inc.

The Power Boss™ is what this Auburn, N.Y., engine manufacturer calls its diesel. This fourcycle engine is offered in a power range from an 800-bhp, 6-cylinder in-line to a 4,500-bhp V-18. All have the same bore and stroke, and use the same operating principles.

With normal maintenance, states Alco, the Power Boss can consistently operate 25,000 hours or more between major overhauls.

The 1,200-rpm Power Boss is part of Alco's continuing development program of putting more power into less space. A 12-cylinder, 1,200-rpm unit is said to provide 16-cylinder performance in specific applications. The 1,200- rpm units are built as an in-line 6, V-12, and V-16 engines. These diesels offer particular advantages in marine and generator applications.

In marine applications, reduction of engine space and weight permit greater fuel storage and therefore better cruising range. When the engine is used in a generator set, a less expensive generator is required.

Four-point mounting, with feet located at the nodes of vibration, is common to all Alco engines.

The rear mounts are firmly anchored while the two front mounts can float longitudinally on their hardened steel plates, allowing for expansion. The four-point mounting also reduces the cost of foundations.

The Power Boss can be shipped completely packaged with its driven equipment and accessories in a skid-mounted arrangement that can merely be set down in a level area for operation.

Generators and turbochargers match the capabilities and characteristics of the engine. The generator, ac or dc, is often of cantilever design mounted directly on the engine with no flexible coupling.

As there is no separate generator support, the possibility of misalignment or distortion is minimized, an important factor in marine units.

Because the basic design of the Power Boss remains much the same, Alco has always been able to improve the engine by standardizing and upgrading components, utilizing new materials and technologies. Standardization also allows Alco to take advantage of new production techniques to establish more precise tolerances, which in turn make new, more efficient components interchangeable with previous parts used in older engines. As a result, even old Alco engines can be upgraded and improved.

Alco's ongoing program to increase production and reduce costs has resulted in the recent addition of more than $3.5 million in new machinery and facilities at its Auburn plant. Plans call for additional expenditures of $32 million over the next five years.

The recently acquired machinery includes an automatic internal grinder that uses a valenite electronic column gauge system, and a dual-turret, 16-inch turning center with acramatic 5-tape control.

Also added was a semi-automatic cam grinder with electronic wheel feed system and automatic wheel truing device, and a dual-turret, 4-axis turning center with CNC tape control that features completely independent motion of each turret.

All this is part of Alco's plan to incorporate the most modern features of production technology in the manufacture of its diesel engines.

Allis-Chalmers The first modern low-speed diesel engine for an oceangoing ship to be built in the United States has been completed and is under test at the Allis-Chalmers Corporation plant in Milwaukee.

In anticipation of future lowspeed diesel business, Allis-Chal- mers recently established a Marine Diesel Division. "The step was considered essential in establishing Allis-Chalmers as a supplier of low-speed diesel engines for marine and stationary power applications. Negotiations on the construction of new units are under way," said John R. Mills, general manager of the Marine Diesel Division.

The first diesel on the test bed is a Sulzer 12 RND 90M type—a single-acting, t w o - s t r o k e crosshead engine with constant-pressure turbocharging. It has a rating of 43,200 bhp at 126 rpm, weighs 1,160 tons, and is 82 feet long, 36 feet high, and a maximum of 14 feet wide.

This engine is the first of three to be built by Allis-Chalmers under an agreement with Sulzer Brothers, Ltd. of Switzerland as main propulsion units for three containerships under construction at Avondale Shipyards for American President Lines. These three vessels, the biggest containerships ever built in the United States, will be used in trans- Pacific trade when they are delivered in 1982.

"For Allis-Chalmers, this contract means some 50,000 manhours of work over a 14-month period," Mr. Mills said. "The first engine is scheduled to be shipped in the fourth quarter of this year.

The second and third engines are scheduled to be finished in the first and second quarters of 1981, respectively." Major components built by Allis- Chalmers are the massive, twopiece bedplates that form the foundation of each engine; the thrust housing, which supports the end of the crankshaft; the columns that support the cylinder assemblies; the air receiving chambers; and the 28 tie-rods that hold a completed engine together.

For the third engine, Allis- Chalmers will manufacture the piston connecting rods. Other major components are supplied by Sulzer.

According to Mr. Mills, the U.S.

Maritime Administration has recognized that one answer to the rising cost of marine fuel was to encourage development of a lowspeed diesel industry in the U.S.

In the total absence of this industry, however, MarAd waived its "buy American" rule to qualify for Federal shipbuilding subsidy.

This attracted leading marine diesel manufacturers, who sought to meet MarAd requirements by arranging to have their engines built in the U.S. by American companies.

"Shipowners also are eager to benefit by the fuel-saving design of the low-speed diesels," Mr.

Mills said. "American President Lines placed the first order for such diesels, giving the contract to Sulzer, which in turn entered into a manufacturing agreement with Allis-Chalmers. The Milwaukee company thus becomes the first American manufacturer to actually build such engines." APL hopes to save about $2 million in fuel costs per ship each year. Elsewhere in the world, some 23,000 oceangoing ships are benefiting from the lower costs of fuel-efficient diesel engines.

American Brons Diesel American Brons engines are manufactured in the U.S. under license from Brons Industrie of the Netherlands at the facilities of Marine Engineering, Incorporated in Belle Chasse, La. Brons diesels have a reputation for high reliability and low maintenance costs. In the United States, they are installed in offshore tugboats, tug/supply vessels, and inland pushboats.

Oosterhuis Industries, Inc. of New Orleans is the U.S. marketing representative for American Brons engines, which are available in the TD and GV series, both lower rr>m type, two-stroke diesels. The TD (turbodiesel) series of engines have a bore of 220 mm, stroke of 380 mm, and a power range from 1,200 to 4,000 bhp (895-2,983 kw).

The turbodiesel design is based on customer demands for low fuel consumption, simple maintenance, and long parts life. The design incorporates almost 75 years of experience at Brons Industrie in building reliable diesels.

The first t u r b o d i e s e l s shoptested at the Belle Chasse plant were introduced to the industry in February 1978. They are installed in a twin-screw tug/supply vessel operating in the Gulf of Mexico. To date these engines have logged approximately 6,000 hours to the full satisfaction of the owner. After the 6,000 hours of operation, cylinder liner readings indicated no practical measurable wear. Fuel-oil consumption and use of lube oil continue to be most satisfactory, and confirm readings obtained earlier on the test bed. TD engines are presently in production for late 1980 and early 1981 deliveries.

The Brons GV series have a bore of 220 mm and stroke of 380 mm, with continuous output from 750 to 2,000 bhp at 375 rpm operating on No. 2 diesel fuel. These engines are available in 6-, 8-, 12-, and 16-cylinder V type configuration, and were introduced in the United States in 1972.

Vessel operators, particularly of offshore tugboats, quickly recognized the economics offered by the GV engines ; a sizable number are presently in operation for U.S.

owners. The first GV engines installed have logged approximately 50,000 hours; no engine repairs of significance have been carried out, and recent inspection of bearings and liners showed only limited wear.

During 1980, orders for GV engines have been mainly for pushboat propulsion, a trend that appears to continue. Several GV diesels have been installed in fishing vessels operating in Icelandic waters using lower quality, higher viscosity fuel. Should the use of other than No. 2 diesel be required, however, the Brons factory should be consulted.

B&W Diesel, Inc.

This is the year in which the reliable and highly efficient, lowspeed diesel engines of the latest B&W design finally made their long-awaited order breakthrough on the world market.

Operators all over the world, responding to the ever-increasing cost of fuel and lubricating oils, are realizing that it pays to invest in B&W engines, with their inherent flexibility and overall operating efficiency. Both of these features are contributing towards maximizing the return on investment, especially considering the complex economics and the volatile nature of the maritime transportation system.

The B&W engine types that have so successfully accommodated the wishes of shipowners and operators consist of five longstroke and four short-stroke engines, ranging from 4 to 12 cylinders, with mcr ranging from 985 to 3,945 bhp. The high thermal efficiency of this engine type, the GFCA design, provides specific fuel consumption ranging from 136 to 143 grams per bhp hour at maximum continuous rating, and from 131 to 138 g/bhph when the engine is operated at 85 percent of normal mean effective pressure. The latter figures will be guaranteed.

The GFCA diesel engine program provides the designers and operators with a unique choice, based on the following factors: The basic design dates from the beginning of the seventies and is therefore founded on extensive service experience with about nine million bhp in service.

The design is based on the uniflow scavenging principle, which, with all other parameters being equal, is able to perform with the lowest specific fuel oil and lube oil consumption.

The design gives the operator the possibility of burning the lowest grades of fuel commercially available. It allows a large stroke,/ bore ratio, thus giving low propeller revolutions and good propulsion.

And the design permits safe operation for longer periods of time at low load, as the combustion is clean and the risk of explosions in the exhaust gas receiver is non-existent.

A very important point when discussing the future of the lowspeed diesel engine is that of development potential. Here the B&W uniflow design provides unique and interesting possibilities.

The current engines are achieving the low consumptions at relatively low maximum cylinder pressure (89 bar). Hence the aim for the immediate future will be to benefit from this situation, first by raising the maximum pressure in the cylinder to 105 bar, thus further increasing the thermal efficiency. The resulting engine type, the GFCB, could be marketed within the next two years.

The next step will be to further raise the maximum pressure, and although this will require more radical design changes, B&W will use this opportunity to introduce some engine components that have been developed and optimized in recent years.

All this will be aimed at giving the customers a simple, more efficient engine that will be able to meet their requirements for the engine as a reliable money maker now and in the future, when the fuel oil scenario is going to be one of deteriorating marine fossil fuels and commercially available alternative fuels such as coal liquids.

Caterpillar Tractor Company Marine engines manufactured by Caterpillar provide continuous propulsion power ratings ranging from 375 bhp on the D353 model to 1,125 for the D399 line. Auxiliary generator sets are rated from 250 kw to 800 kw.

The big engines in the Caterpillar marine family are the D399 V16 and the D398 V12, both turbocharged/ aftercooled models with the same bore/stroke of 6.25/8.0 inches. These two types, along with the D379 and D353 engines, have proven capable and reliable in thousands of marine applications around the world.

The rugged four-cycle design and medium operating speeds of the Cat marine engines result in outstanding reliability and long service life. Their compact size insures ease of installation and servicing even when machinery spaces are at a premium.

For application flexibility, V models offer right- or left-hand rotation, full power from either end, and accessories located on either side. Watershielded turbocharger and watercooled exhaust manifolds protect against fire hazards and reduce engine room temperature.

The no-adjustment fuel system keeps full rated power and good fuel economy without periodic adjustment.

Worldwide, thousands of Caterpillar 7200 Series marine transmissions are hard at work in applications ranging from 300 to 1,125 hp continuous operation.

Their value is attested to by operators and owners of river pushboats, fishing vessels, offshore supply and crewboats, oceangoing tugs, workboats, and utility vessels.

The 7200 Series is designed for specific Cat diesel engines, insuring matched propulsion packages for ease of installation and maximum operational efficiency.

Colt Industries Fairbanks Morse Engine Division of Colt Industries is benefiting from the strong current demand for marine diesel engines.

The division produces its wellknown 38D8Vs series opposedpiston diesel in a range up to 4,200 bhp. The larger Colt/Pielstick PC2 series is manufactured in t h e d i v i s i o n ' s Beliot, Wise, headquarters, and is offered in a range from 6,000 to 11,700 bhp.

In addition, Fairbanks has sales rights for the much larger Pielstick PC4 diesels with ratings up to 27,000 bhp.

According to W.T. Hailey, vice president-sales, the division's marine activities during the past year were highlighted by three applications. The first was the three breakbulk/reefer/container vessels built by Equitable Shipyards for American Atlantic Shipping, Inc. Each vessel is powered by a 12-cylinder Fairbanks Morse opposed-piston diesel with a 3,000 bhp rating. Said to be the most technologically advanced vessels of their size in the American-flag merchant fleet, two of them have been delivered, with the third scheduled for completion by the end of this year.

A second important application for FM-built engines was the three twin-screw tug/barge units being built by Avondale Shipyards for Occidental Petroleum. Each shipset consists of two Colt/Pielstick 14-cylinder, PC2.5 direct-reversing diesel engines, each driving a single i n p u t / o u t p u t reduction gear. The tug and barge lock together, forming a rigid connection between the stern of the barge and the twin hulls of the catamaran tug. Each vessel will have an overall length of 677 feet 10 inches, with a 36-foot draft and deadweight of 41,500 tons.

The engines will burn heavy fuels, providing a high degree of economy of operation. All engine components are of U.S. manufacture to comply with Maritime Administration requirements for U.S.- flag vessels under subsidy programs.

Also, the engines will be built and equipped to meet the requirements of American Bureau of Shipping 1978 rules for oneman engine room operation (ACC).

Colt/Pielstick marine diesel engines have been selected by the U.S. Navy for the new amphibious LSD-41 class dock landing ship program planned by the Naval Sea Systems Command. Engines for the first shipset have been ordered, as well as an additional two engines for installation in a training and testing facility at the Philadelphia Naval Shipyard.

The shipset consists of four 16- cylinder, 8,500-bhp engines with auxiliary equipment. When funded, the LSD-41 program will involve a number of ships, each powered by four Colt/Pielstick diesel engines.

The use of diesel propulsion in these ships offers distinct savings in fuel use. The Navy estimates that eight of the new ships, in replacing eight of an older class, will save more than 20 million gallons of fuel per year. As the diesel engines provide improved fuel consumption, the LSD-41 ships will carry less fuel and still meet necessary cruising range requirements.

According to Mr. Hailey, the Colt/Pielstick design has been exceptionally well received by the American maritime industry. To date, a total of 56 Colt/Pielstick diesels have been built or are on order for marine applications.

Mr. Hailey also stated: "We are very enthusiastic about the marine diesel markets for the saltwater fleet. The demand for large diesels is increasing, and we anticipate this growth to continue over at least the next 10 years.

U.S. shipowners are showing more interest in diesel propulsion systems than I have seen in my 30 years in the marine engine business.

At present, we are conducting an extensive market study to determine the need for expanded facilities as well as a broader product line with a higher horsepower range of engines. If the need is there, we will meet the requirements of the shipowners." Cummins Engine Company Three new engines from Cummins have increased the presence of this manufacturer in the marine workboat and pleasure craft markets. All three respond to users' demands for increased horsepower, better fuel consumption c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and easy maintenance, the Columbus, Ind., company reports.

Cummins' newest "K" engine is the heavy-duty KTA-3067, a 16-cylinder diesel that produces 1,250 bhp at 1,800 rpm during continuous-duty operation. This new engine rounds out the top of the Cummins K product line first introduced in 1975 with the 6-cylinder KT-1150-M. In the past five years hundreds of K-6s have gone into service worldwide, and have become very popular in the industry due to their fuel efficiency and easy maintenance. Key features of the 3,067-cubic-inch engine are its light weight, fuel efficiency, and its serviceability. The V-configuration engine is 120 inches long, 53 inches wide, and 76 inches high. Despite the high horsepower rating, the engine weighs only 10,700 pounds with standard accessories, but without gear. Fuel consumption is rated at 63 gallons per hour. Service is made easy by individual cylinder heads and replaceable wet-type liners.

These features convinced John Wronoski of New London, Conn., to become the first owner to specify the KTA-3076. It will be used in an ocean tug now being built— the latest of many Wronoski boats that have used Cummins power since 1952.

Crabbers, seiners, and trawlers have found the KT-2300-M to be the answer to their power needs since it was introduced in 1979, Cummins reports, but 1980 marks the first use of this model diesel on the inland waterways. In July this year the Jeanne Marie, a switchboat plying the St. Louis area for Archway Fleeting and Towing Services, became the first new inland boat powered by the 11,700-pound engine.

The KT-2300-M is rated 700 bhp at 1,800 rpm, while the aftercooled model produces 940 bhp at 1,800 rpm during continuous duty.

Both engines feature the same easy maintenance characteristics as the KTA-3067.

Archway's manager of operations David Houlihan thinks the KT-2300-M can respond to the c h a l l e n g e of quick pivots and swift floodstage currents better than smaller engines that are commonly used in switching operations.

He also was impressed by the fuel consumption advantages the KT-2300 had over competing engines. "We project an annual fuel savings of $80,000 using the Cummins engine," he said in comparing the KT-2300 with its nearest competitor.

The VT-555-M is a new engine designed for twin-screw applications in pleasure and sport fishing craft. It features the highest horsepower to weight ratio of any engine in its class, according to Cummins. The turbocharged, 555-cubic-inch V-8 engine is rated 320 bhp at 3,000 rpm, an 18-percent improvement over the 270- bhp VT-555-M offered by Cummins.

A larger camshaft and higher capacity heat exchanger system are responsible for the horsepower improvement and for a five percent improvement in fuel economy over the previous model, the company said.

Detroit Diesel Allison This division of General Motors Corporation, located in Detroit, has been providing reliable and durable diesel power to the marine industry for more than four decades.

DDA offers more than 53 marine diesel engine models covering a power range from 100 to over 1,100 continuous shaft horsepower (net power available at the marine gear output shaft). All Detroit diesels provide excellent horsepower-to-weight ratios.

Detroit diesels are available in in-line or V-type configurations to fit almost any hull plan. A total of six low-profile configurations are offered to accommodate engine compartments with limited overhead clearances.

DDA's ability to provide rightand left-hand engine rotation permits port and starboard rotations with all marine gear designs.

These "mirror image" matched in-line engine pairs are the ideal power for twin-screw installations.

Marine engine models are offered in four engine series — the 53, 71, 92, and 149 Series — each named for the cubic-inch displacement per cylinder. The Series 53 marine line consists of 4-cylinder in-line and 6-cylinder V-type models.

Naturally aspirated and turbocharged versions of Series 71 Detroit Diesel engines have long been the standard marine engines around the world, beginning with the 71s that powered Allied Navy landing craft during World War II. The Series 71 marine line is offered in 4- and 6-cylinder in-line models; 6-V, 8-V, 12-V, and 16-V models also are available. Most are available in naturally aspirated and turbocharged/intercooled configurations.

The DDA 12V-71 marine engine has proven to be extremely popular in commercial workboat a p p l i c a t i o n s . This model has achieved a reputation for high performance and dependability in crewboats, riverboats, towboats and tugs, and many commercial fishing vessels, worldwide.

For crewboat and some special fishing boat applications in which extra power is required on an i n t e r m i t t e n t basis, the turbocharged/ intercooled 12V-71TI has been the choice of many operators.

This model provides up to 25 percent greater horsepower at the shaft, with no significant increase in size or weight over the naturally aspirated engine.

This engine is also available in a low-profile configuration. Designed for high-speed, high-output propulsion, the 12V-71TI Low Profile marine engine is ideally suited for vessels requiring a compact, high-performance diesel in limited engine compartment space.

The Series 92 engines come in n a t u r a l l y aspirated and turbocharged versions of 6-, 8-, and 16- cyinder V-type models. The Series 149 marine engines are available in 12- and 16-cylinder V-type models, and also are manufactured in n a t u r a l l y aspirated and turbocharged versions.

Detroit Diesel marine engines are equipped with marine gears, and heat-exchanger cooling is standard on most models. A wide selection of electrical systems is available to meet various installation requirements.

Electro-Motive Division, GM General Motors Model 645E marine diesel engines, which are m a n u f a c t u r e d by the Electro- Motive Division in La Grange, 111., now provide more than 4.8 million brake horsepower for 2,000 marine applications worldwide.

The full line of 645E diesels, in seven engine sizes, covers all marine power needs from 975 to 3,600 bhp. Multiple engine drives up to 14,000 bhp also are available.

Features of the 645E include: engine, reverse / reduction gear, and controls as a complete package; ratios in close steps, matching propeller speeds; propeller speeds from 133 to 360 rpm, basic standard sizes; all gears furnished either horizontal or vertical offset; b u i l t - i n propeller thrust bearing; inspected and certified by American Bureau of Shipping or other inspection agencies ; remote controls included; available with engine and gear on common base.

With EMD's engineering research concentrated on the turbocharged model, an improved 645E7B has been developed. This new model provides an approximate two percent improvement in fuel economy by improved combustion and thermal efficiency.

Major factors contributing to increased fuel economy are improved turbocharger and injector designs.

Other design changes include piston pin and carrier, piston pin insert bearing, c a m s h a f t , and rocker arm followers. Additional 645E7B engine design improvements such as laser-hardened cylinder liner bore and pre-stressed top piston ring increase the already high reliability and maintainability of EMD engines. These new design components can be retrofitted into EMD 645E engines presently in service.

EMD also supplies the highly dependable 645E non-turbocharged engine, with its continuing reputation for durability. The nonturbocharged engine, scavenged by Roots type blowers, is offered in 8-, 12-, and 16-cylinder sizes.

The turbocharged engine is available in 8-, 12-, 16-, and 20-cylinder sizes.

The turbocharger of the improved E7B engine has the following design changes: new turbine blade airfoil shape to improve turbine efficiency along with modified turbine blade serration for reduced operating stresses and improved reliability; new, high-efficiency compressor diffuser to improve compressor ef- ficiency and increase air flow; and revised turbine nozzle.

The new injector design features a 0.500-inch-diameter plunger that provides an increased injection rate for improved combustion and thermal efficiency. The new injector also includes the "low sac" spray tip that reduces smoke and undesirable emissions.

General Electric Company, Diesel Power Products G e n e r a l E l e c t r i c Company's Diesel Power Products (Erie, Pa.) offers an advanced four-cycle engine, available in 8-, 12-, or 16- cylinder sizes with power ratings from 1,500-3,500 hp. The manufacturer reports the engine's high capacity turbocharger and effi cient combustion system offer a low fuel rate. Additional features, such as easy accessibility to components and maximum standardization of parts, offers marine users low maintenance and a minimum spare parts inventory.

General Electric states their engine's modern design concept offers significant advantages, including: A reliable constant pressure stainless-steel exhaust manifold located in the "V" of the engine block for easy accessibility; Effective operation with a wide variety of lube oils; All oil passages to the bearing positions accessible through plugs at the top of the gallery. Engine protection includes automatic shutdown upon detection of low water pressure, low lube oil pressure, engine overspeed, or e x c e s s i v e c r a n k c a se pressure.

GE's e x h a u s t - d r i v e n turbocharger contributes significantly to the engine's low fuel rate.

Unitized cylinders are a unique feature of the General Electric diesel engine. Each is mounted on top of the main frame with four bolts and has individual water and air passages, completely isolated from the main frame. Three major elements—the liner, steel head insert, and external jacket—make up the unitized cylinder. The cylinder can be removed for inspection, maintenance, and repair. Inspection, maintenance, and replacement of pistons is also simplified.

With the cylinder removed, the piston is completely exposed. All unitized cylinders on GE diesel engines are interchangeable.

Grandi Motori Trieste Latest addition to the GMT production range—the CC 600 engine— is a completely new design concept in marketing philosophy and production whose keynote is versatility. It is intended for the widest possible range of ship propulsion duties—direct coupled in vessels where higher propeller speeds are used, or geared to give optimum propulsion efficiency at generally lower cost.

The CC 600, being a 2-stroke, crosshead type engine, will run on the cheapest low-grade fuel oil; the design throughout has taken into account the fact that the quality of such fuel will continue to deteriorate.

Despite the presence of a crosshead, separated crankcase, and the working spaces typical of a more t r a d i t i o n a l low-speed 2- stroke engine, the low stroke/bore ratio adopted in the CC 600 leads to an extremely compact design.

Producing 1,650 hp per cylinder at 250 rpm in versions from 4 to 10 cylinders, this engine can be fitted into almost any machinery space, however restricted, as its compactness is complemented by a unique facility to withdraw the piston without its rod in a much reduced overhauling height.

The CC 600 engine retains all the characteristic design features of the previous GMT low-speed, 2-stroke engine range — the B 1060, C 900, C 780, and C 600 types — and its construction details are solidly based on the wealth of experience built up over the many years during which the validity of the design principles has been proved in the previous low-speed engine types. It differs from the other engines in that it has a low bore/stroke ratio of 1.33:1 as opposed to the normal ratio of about 2:1.

Much interest in the CC 600 is already being shown by clients in both the marine and industrial sectors, and many promising projects are being studied. The first order for a CC 600 engine has been received, this for a 5-cylinder unit of 8,250 bhp for a 15- knot gas chemical carrier of 12,- 000 dwt to be built by the Benetti yard for Carbocoke of Genoa.

A market of particular interest could well develop for the CC 600 design from the increasing number of cases where conversion from existing steam plants is being considered. With a pre-established propeller speed and engine room configuration, these installations usually demand a geared plant. Their large (albeit diminished) power r e q u i r e m e n t s and high utilization factor underline the importance of burning the most economical fuel available to achieve the objective of the conversion.

The CC 600 fits these requirements admirably.

GMT's B 600 engine is a slowspeed 2-stroke of 1,500 bhp per cylinder at 160 rpm, and was designed essentially as a compact, simple, and reliable engine that can be built at a competitive cost and is particularly easy and economic to maintain. This engine is planned to meet the needs of the substantial and growing market for smaller ships of all kinds where direct-drive, low-speed engines can be accommodated. It is adaptable to give optimum efficiency over a range of maximum service speeds from 145 to 160 rpm.

The B 600 retains the basic GMT traditional 2-stroke characteristics of its existing range of 2-stroke engines with cylinder bores of 1,060 mm, 900 mm, and 780 mm, but also has many new features and refinements. It is designed to operate reliably on the worst grades of heavy oil being predicted, and will be built with from 4 to 10 cylinders to cover powers from 6,000 to 15,000 bhp.

Two 10-cylinder units of the the B 600 engine, each developing 15,000 bhp (mcr) at 160 rpm are on order for Home Lines' 30,000- gt cruise ship under construction at the CNIM Shipyard in France.

M.A.N.

The current engine program of M.A.N. (Maschinenfabrik Augsburg- Nurnberg AG) includes five four-stroke engines with bores from 200 to 520 mm, and five two-stroke engines with bores from 520 to 900 mm — three of which are long-stroke versions.

The four-stroke engines cover an output range from 134 to 1,187 bhp per cylinder, and the twostroke engines from 1,187 to 3,889 bhp per cylinder. The mean effec- tive pressure of the four-stroke engines is 20 bar (25 bar with t w o - s t a g e supercharging), and that of the two-stroke engines is 13 bar and 14.5 bar for the lowspeed types and approximately 15 bar with the two-stage H engines.

The maximum cylinder pressure of the medium-speed engines is up to 145 bar, and that of the two-stroke engines is 115 bar.

Today's engine production program at M.A.N, thus combines, on a high-power level, proven principles with present and future demands.

The most important development targets for the updated program were: Ability to burn heavy fuel oils up to 3,500 seconds Redwood 1 in the case of four-stroke engines, and up to 6,000 sRl in the case of two-stroke engines; adherence to proven design concepts wherever e x p e d i e n t ; variation in turbocharger arrangement and selection of optimum speed; type of construction fully developed in terms of production, engineering, and maintenance; and high quality standard.

By proven design principles M.A.N, understands that for as many components of different engine types as possible, the same design solutions are used, permitting the transfer of computed and measured results from trial data and practical experience.

The constant demand from the shipowners and shipyards for a smaller engine developing below 1,000 kW (1,341 bhp) and the rising interest in smaller stationary units for combined power/ heat generation prompted M.A.N, to develop the 20/27 engine. This engine is available as an in-line unit with four to nine cylinders, and as a V engine with 12 to 18 cylinders.

The 20/27 engine is intended mainly for the following applications: as a propulsion engine for smaller vessels; as an auxiliary engine for power generation aboard ships; for stationary power- generating p l a n t s ; and for plants combining power generation with waste heat recovery.

The 20/27 engine is offered in diesel, spark-ignited gas, and dualfuel versions. The cylinder rating of the diesel engine is 100 kW (134 bhp) at 1,000 rpm according to the ISO definition. Its mean effective pressure and mean piston speed are 14.15 bar and 9 meters per second, respectively.

Since the 20/27 engine was put on the market in September 1979, M.A.N, and its licensees have received orders for a total of 54 units with 383 cylinders. A 5L20/ 27 heavy fuel oil engine has meanwhile successfully completed type test in Augsburg in the presence of representatives of the classification societies.

Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Mitsubishi marine diesel engines are available in the U.S.

from Mitsubishi Heavy Industries of America, Chicago, and in the Gulf Coast area through Oosterhuis Industries, Inc. in New Orleans.

The Mitsubishi marine engines marketed in the United States are the Daiya series, a mediumspeed, 4-stroke diesel built as a 4- and 6-cylinder in-line and offered as a complete unit with Mitsubishi r e v e r s e / r e d u c t i on gear.

The Daiya diesels are heavyduty engines that turn at about 900 rpm and are specifically designed for marine applications and for burning economically priced, lower quality fuel oils.

They develop from 400 to 1,100 bhp (298-820 kw) and have been gaining rapid acceptance in the U.S.

Other Mitsubishi engines available are the SA and SN series, high-speed, 4-stroke diesels of sturdy design that, during the past decade, have gained wide acceptance in Europe. The SA engines are available in 6-cylinder in-line and 12-cylinder V type versions, developing from 185 bhp at 1,200 rpm to 800 bhp at 1,800 rpm (138-596 kw). The SN series are available in 6- and 8-cylinder in-line, and 12- and 16-cylinder V type in a horsepower range from 275 bhp at 1,200 rpm to 1,800 bhp at 1,800 rpm (205-1,342 kw).

Mitsubishi Heavy Industries of America also offers a variety of diesel-generator sets, incorporating SA or SN engines.

Mitsui Engineering Mitsui E n g i n e e r i n g & Shipbuilding Company, Ltd., a Burmeister & Wain licensee, has achieved world records in diesel engine building four times in less than a decade. Its first, for aggregated bhp for a single type marine diesel was established in 1968 when a total production of four million bhp was reached. Renewing its own record by boosting the aggregated bhp to five million in 1970 and seven million in 1973, it surpassed a milestone 10 million bhp mark in October 1976.

Mitsui's history of diesel engine production goes back to 1926, when it entered into the technical licensing agreement with B&W.

In 1961 it completed the first main engine built in Japan with a remote control system from the bridge. In 1970 the company completed a 38,000-bhp engine, followed by one of 40,900 bhp the next year, both having the largest output in the world at that time. Further, to meet the demand for more efficient and economical engines, it developed a long-stroke engine in 1976 that has since become very popular among its users.

Following the development in 1973 of its V60M 4-stroke, medium- speed geared diesel engine incorporating an automated maintenance and inspection system, in 1976 Mitsui developed the L/ V42M series to meet the need for a wider output range.

Motoren- und Turbinen-Union The 396 Series engine family of MTU, Friedrichshafen, West Germany, has found wide acceptance in the international marketplace.

Up to mid-1980, approximately 1,600 engines of this series have been put into service — some 25 percent of them installed aboard ships as main propulsion or for ship's services.

The long-stroke (185 mm) 396 engine features application engineering advantages in overall systems requiring engine revolutions from 1,200 to 1,800 rpm, such as workboat propulsion with low propeller revolutions, or generator sets of 50 or 60 Hz.

Against this background MTU unveiled, at the recent Ship, Machinery, Marine Technology International Exhibition and Congress in Hamburg, a new 16-cylinder engine, the 396-03 series, with the same hardware commonality as in the existing 6-, 8-, and 12-cylinder models. The 03 series enables the same design principle to be retained up to a maximum output level of 1,760 kw (2,400 bhp). The 16V 396 TC engine has a per cylinder output of 111 hp at 1,650 rpm for commercial vessels, 143 hp at 1,900 rpm for fast vessels, and 150 hp at 2,100 rpm for high-performance craft. The 396- 03 engines will be delivered starting in the spring of 1981.

Major t e c h n i c a l modifications that produced the increased performance were a reduction of the compression ratio to retain the ignition pressures customary for the 02 series in spite of the better performance, and introduction of a composite piston together with better-matched turbocharger and injection systems.

The intensive turbocharger research in particular enabled such a rise in output without increasing consumption. An additional, particularly important point is the introduction of cylinder cutout.

S.E.M.T. Pielstick Alsthom-Atlantique Departement Moteurs S.E.M.T. Pielstick of Saint-Denis, France, with 25 diesel manufacturers in 18 countries building its engines under license or sublicense, dominates the medium-speed diesel field. The S.E.M.T. line also includes highspeed engines. In 1979, Pielstick medium- and high-speed engines for marine applications accounted for 41.6 percent of the market worldwide.

As of June this year, 2,203 Pielstick medium-speed diesels of the PC type had been delivered for marine applications, aggregating 27,451 cylinders and 15,117,294 bhp. At the same time, 959 highspeed marine engines type PA were in service—a total of 11,408 cylinders and 1,647,987 bhp.

The latest development in the S.E.M.T. PC2 range of engines is the PC2-6 with an output of 750 hp per cylinder at 520 rpm, a mean effective pressure of 21.5 kilograms per square centimeter, and a piston speed of 7.97 meters per second. The PC2-6 is offered in two versions — as an in-line with 6, 8, or 9 cylinders, and in V-form with 12, 14, 16, or 18 cylinders.

Using a multi-pulse converter (MPC) supercharging system, together with a modified combustion chamber and a new injection timing, remarkable results are said to have been achieved with specific fuel consumption (ISO conditions).

At maximum continuous rating the fuel rate is 142 grams per hp hour, for continuous service operation the rate is 140 grams per hp hour, and at optimized conditions a fuel rate of 137 grams per hp hour was achieved.

The PC2-6, as do all other Pielstick engines of the medium-speed type, runs on the heaviest residual fuels — up to 4,000 seconds Redwood.

Fairbanks Morse Engine Division is the U.S. licensee for S.E.M.T. Pielstick PC engines.

Stork-Werkspoor Diesel During the past year, Stork- Werkspoor Diesel of Amsterdam has directed its research and development activities towards new engine types, thermodynamic considerations, and use of heavy fuels.

The new 12-cylinder, V-form TM 620 has been tested and measured on all special V-form components.

As a consequence, a single medium-speed engine of only 12 cylinders with a rating of 22,- 000 bhp (16,200 kw) is now available.

Fuel consumption is of great importance today, and at SWD developments are made constantly on many engine details to reach the lowest values possible. Great care is required, however, as various measures in the direction of maximum economy can result simultaneously in an increase in the thermal load, and the load advantages achieved by controlling the thermal load must retained.

N e v e r t h e l e s s , respectable fuel consumption r a t e s have been achieved, especially at somewhat reduced loads. For the TM 620 engine, a fuel rate of 190 grams per kw hour has been attained.

Research is continuing in this area.

From the beginning, the TM 410 and TM 620 engines have been developed to run on heavy fuel. As a consequence, only small adaptations are necessary for the fuels of inferior quality that are expected to appear on the market in the near future. These fuels will have a higher content of larger molecules, which can lead to slower burning and increased fouling.

Another risk, however, is caused by mixing problems (compatibility) of oils from different sources, which can seduce oil companies to use light aromatic oils as a remedy. As a result, more and more often fuels with poor ignition properties appear on the market. The latter problem was attacked first by Stork, and has led to the introduction of air-inlet heating at part load in cases where the use of such fuels cannot be avoided.

Subsequently, trials have been run at SWD with a specially formulated "future" fuel. This fuel oil had a Conradson carbon number of about 20, 11 percent asphalt, and a viscosity of approximately 4,800 sec RI at 100 F. The trials took place in a 9-cylinder TM 410 engine, and the objective was to investigate the partial load range in particular, because it was there that the greatest fouling was feared, especially as a result of gas blow-back in the inlet passage.

SWD found the results "astonishing." First, the engine started immediately and ran if possible more quietly than usual. Obviously this fuel, as opposed to the previous one, had very good ignition properties. Second, a perfectly normal picture regarding engine cleanliness showed up at all inspections. Up to 10 percent load, a b s o l u t e l y n o t h i n g happened; at 10 percent load at full rpm, slight blackening occurred in the inlet passage, which disappeared after brief full-load operation.

These trials have only recently been completed and many details still have to be evaluated. Summarizing the test results, SWD reports that, although the consequences of using "future fuels" must not be underestimated, their design characteristics place the TM 410 and TM 620 engines in a favorable starting position for being able to burn these products in a reliable manner.

Sulzer Brothers Limited The keen interest shown in Sulzer's complete RL engine family is reflected by the continuous flow of new orders for these types.

Some of the latest orders for the newly introduced RL 66 and RL 76 engines, as well as for the RLB ratings, received up to May 1 this year demonstrate the success of this design.

One 6RL56 engine, to be built in Sulzer's own factory in Winterthur, Switzerland, with a rating of 9,000 bhp at 170 rpm will power a 20,000-dwt products carrier ordered by Misano Soc. di Navigazione, Ravenna, from Nouvi Cantieri Apuania, Marina de Carrara, Italy.

Of nine 6RLA66 engines, six with a rating of 11,100 bhp at 124 rpm and three with a rating of 11,850 bhp at 136 rpm, three will be built by Mitsubishi, one by IHI, and four by Sumitomo for different clients, and one engine will be built by Sulzer for an oceangoing self-unloader ordered by Canada Steamship Line of Montreal from Collingwood Shipyard, Ontario, Canada.

Three 7RLA66 engines with a rating of 12,950 bhp at 124 rpm will be built by Mitsubishi; one of these is destined for a 35,000- dwt tanker ordered from Imbari Zosen.

One 6RLA76 engine with a rating of 14,700 bhp at 106 rpm will be built by Horton or Norway to power a 30,000-cubic-meter LPG/Ammonia/VCM carrier ordered by Sig. Bergesen d.y. of Oslo from the Norwegian shipyard Moss Rosenberg Verft A/S.

And one engine with a rating of 14,400 bhp at 122 rpm will be built by IHI.

With the continued success of the RLA90 and RLA56 engines, the above listed additions brought the total number of RL engines on order to exactly 100.

Transamerica Delaval Shipbuilders in nations where oil was in short supply adopted the diesel alternative years ago.

Today, more than half of the new commercial ships over 1,000 gross tons entering American service have followed suit—an indication of a new maritime era of energy economics.

Delaval R and RV four-cycle diesel engines operating in the 450-rpm range have achieved a long and successful record powering vessels from tugs to tankers for many years under the familiar product name Enterprise.

As early as the 1940s, the original configuration was modified by the Maritime Commission to burn heavy fuel.

Now providing the highest horsepower rating of any mediumspeed diesels manufactured in the U.S., this family of reliable engines is well suited for its expanding role in marine service.

Its units are more rigid and rugged, shorter in length, conservatively rated, and have excellent maneuvering control flexibility and lower lube oil consumption.

Six Delaval RV-12 engines, each rated at 7,800 bhp, will power the t h r e e bulk c a r r i e r s under construction at Levingston Shipbuild- ing Company for Levingston Falcon I Shipping Company. And twin RV-16s, each rated at 9,100 bhp, will propel each of the three catamaran tugs that Halter Marine is building under subcontract from Bethlehem-Sparrows Point, who is building the barges for the three tug/barge units.

Delaval is also supplying the diesel generators for the three American President Lines containerships under construction at Avondale Shipyards. Designed to operate on heavy fuel, these generators are 2,500-kw DMR46, inline medium-speed units.

Wartsila Diesel Division One of the leading manufacturers of medium-speed diesel engines is the Wartsila Diesel Division, which today includes Nohab Diesel AB, Trollhattan, Sweden; the Vasa Factory in Vasa, Finland; and the diesel engineering department of the Turku Shipyard in Turku, Finland, which m a n u f a c t u r e s heavy mediumspeed engines and low-speed diesels under license.

The Division belongs to the Wartsila Group, which is one of the biggest privately owned enterprises in Finland with 14,000 employees and production plants at 12 different sites all over the country, and is one of the world's leading shipbuilders, concentrating on icebreakers, car/passenger ferries, and cruise liners.

Early in 1980 Wartsila Power, Inc. was established in New Orleans, primarily to service the close to 200 Nohab F-type engines that are in operation in North America, as well as to promote the sale of Nohab engines and introduce Wartsila-Vasa engines.

Nohab Diesel AB follows a long tradition in designing, developing, and manufacturing diesel engines.

During an 80-year period, Polar and Nohab engines have been produced in a wide range of different engine types, but since 1969 Nohab has concentrated on developing a medium-speed engine series with only one cylinder size throughout. The F-type engine is a 4-stroke, trunk type diesel with a bore of 250 mm and a stroke of 300 mm. During the fall of this year the next development step, the F30 generation, is being introduced in the North American market.

The design parameters of the new F30 engine were governed by the following requirements: high service reliability, foolproof systems, installation simplicity, and wide exchangeability of engine components with respect to all F-type engines delivered during the years.

Diesel e n g i n e production at Wartsila-Vasa in Finland began in 1955 when the factory started to manufacture auxiliary engines under license. The design of a diesel engine of its own began in the late 1950s, and the first engines of the Vasa 24 type were marketed in 1960. To date, the Vasa factory has delivered more than 1,900 engines.

The main product at the Vasa factory today is the Vasa 32, which is a heavy-fuel engine with a bore of 320 mm and a stroke of 350 mm, with a maximum output of 5,760 kw (7,725 bhp) in the speed range of 720-800 rpm. The Vasa 32 is produced in 4-, 6-, 8-, and 9-cylinder in-line versions, and in 12-, 16-, and 18-cylinder V engines. It is intended primarily for marine propulsion and land power generation, but has also found a market for auxiliary purposes, especially when the auxiliaries are to run on the same fuel as the main engines.

Serial production of the Vasa 32 was started in 1978, and today more than 100 engines have been delivered for marine production and auxiliary purposes in vessels built in Norway, Sweden, Germany, Holland, Japan, South Korea, and Finland.

Wartsila's latest development is the Vasa 22HF engine, which is also a heavy-fuel engine capable of burning MFO (1,500 Sec. R l ).

This engine has a bore of 220 mm and a stroke of 290 mm, and has a per cylinder output of 150 kw (200 bhp) at 1,000 rpm. Cylinder numbers from 4 to 16 cover an output range from 600 to 2,500 kw (805 to 3,350 bhp). The first engines of this new design will be delivered in 1981.

Waukesha Engine Division Within the past year, Dresser Industries' Waukesha Engine Division has delivered units of its new 9^-inch bore series marine engine for several applications.

These include generator service for a U.S. dredge and a North Sea offshore platform, as well as for propulsion duty in a Rhine River barge.

The new 6- and 12-cylinder marine diesel of 232 mm bore with maximum bhp ratings of 1,021 and 2,042, respectively, at 1,215 rpm, are available in either turbocharged and intercooled, or naturally aspirated configurations.

Typical standard equipment includes heat exchanger and oil cooler with removable tube bundle for ease of maintenance; prelubrication system for reliability; shielded high-pressure fuel injection lines for safety; and variable fuel injection timing for smooth operation at variable speeds.

The 6-cylinder engine, Model F3335DSIM, has a bore and stroke of 9.125 by 8.5 inches (232 by 216 mm) and a displacement of 3,335 cubic inches (54.6 liters).

The 12-cylinder Model L6670DSIM has the same bore and stroke and a displacement of 6,670 cubic inches (109.3 liters).

The installation in the Army Corps of Engineers hopper dredge under construction at Avondale Shipyards involves three Waukesha VHP6700DSIM Enginator® generating sets, which utilize the L6670DSIM engines. These are the first Waukesha engine/generators to be installed in a U.S.

vessel of this type. The dredge, scheduled for delivery in September 1981, will be operated by the Corps' New Orleans District.

These generators will provide all electrical power on the ship except that required to run the dredge pumps, which will be powered by other generators. Each of the VHP6700DSIM units is rated 1,000 kw for continuous operation at 1,200 rpm. A fourth Waukesha generating unit, Model VS900DSM rated 150 kw at 1,800 rpm, will provide emergency standby power for the dredge.

The North Sea platform engine/ generator is a 12-cylinder L6670DSIM rated 1,000 kw at 1,200 rpm, while the Rhine River barge propulsion engine is a Model F3335DSIM rated 88 bhp at 1,215 rpm.

Some noteworthy installations within the past year involving other Waukesha marine engines include five 12-cylinder L5792- DSIM engines, each rated 1,420 bhp, for bow thruster service on Spanish cargo vessels, two Model L5792DM engines that will be packaged into g e n e r a t o r s for ship's service on an oil company motor vessel based in Canada, and two H867DSIM V8 engines, each rated 300 bhp at 1,900 rpm, for main propulsion duty on a Mississippi River pushboat.

Waukesha's VHP marine engine line ranges from 416 to 1,636 continuous bhp at 1,215 rpm, with ship's service electric sets available up to 1,150 kw at 1,200 rpm.

Its smaller, mid-range line series marine diesels are rated up to 348 continuous bhp at 1,900 rpm for propulsion, and 235 kw at 1,800 rpm in ship's service generator sets.

by twin General Motors 16V-92 diesel engines rated at 1,200 shp and equipped with Twin Disc MG527, 5.17:1 reduction gears.

Fernstrum grid coolers are to be installed for the main engines.

The electrical system will be powered by two General Motors 4-71, 50-kw generator sets which will produce power for all shipboard use.

As is standard on all Dravo SteelShip towboats, the vessels will be provided with a soft patch to facilitate removal of principal machinery.

The vessels are to be equipped with two steering and four flanking rudders along with two 60- inch, f o u r - b l a d e , stainless-steel propellers.

Each towboat will have two fuel tanks with 13,000 gallon capacity, a 4,000-gallon potable water tank, a 500-gallon lube oil tank and a 500-gallon slop oil tank.

Dravo S t e e l S h i p Corporation currently has two 110-foot spud barges, two 75-foot coastal tugboats, two 60-foot crane workboats, three 88-foot towboats and several other pieces of marine equipment under construction.

Maritime Reporter Magazine, page 14,  Oct 15, 1980 Optimal Injection

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