Ice Tech 81

Ottawa, Canada — June 16-19 This major event will bring forth the results of research and development in designing ships for ice navigation by many nations of the world.

For years to come "Ice Tech '81" will be considered and referenced as a major event in resource and marine development in the Arctic regions and ice-covered waters. Ice Tech '81 is the title of the Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers annual Spring Meeting/STAR Symposium.

This year it will be held in t h e C h a t e a u L a u r i e r , Ottawa, Ontario, Canada from June 16 through 19. The Eastern Canadian Section of the Society will be the host.

A total of 26 technical papers have been prepared, all dealing with ice navigation and the design of ships for Arctic and Antarctic conditions. The a u t h o rs come from the USSR, Finland, Germany, Japan, Canada and the United States, t h u s , giving a worldwide view of this important subject. In 1975, the Eastern Canadian Section of the Society organized the successful "Ice Tech '75." Ice Tech '81 will be a timely s u c c e s s o r to that outstanding meeting.

Technical Sessions All of Ice Tech '81 technical sessions will be held in the Drawing Room of the hotel, directly off the Ballroom Lobby on the ground floor.

Paper No. 1 — "Manhattan's Arctic Venture; A Semi-Technical History" by W.O. Gray and R.


SYNOPSIS: The conversion of the 106,000-dwt M a n h a t t a n in 1969 to enable her to undertake icebreaking experiments in the Canadian Arctic was described as "the most extensive and enterprising shipbuilding endeavor in the United States since World War II." This paper describes the basic purposes and results of the project which led its sponsors to conclude that it had been successful and might someday lead to the introduction of economic yearround Arctic marine transportation.

Paper No. 2 — "SS Manhattan Arctic Marine Project Data: The Impact on Technology" by A.D.

Mookhoek, R.P. Voelker and F.W.


SYNOPSIS: During the period 1968-71, EXXON, ARCO and BP participated in a project to determine the feasibility of transporting Alaskan North Slope crude oil via icebreaking tankers.

This paper describes and discusses the technical and operational data resulting from that project and assesses its impact on future Arctic marine technology/Design criteria for a new icebreaking tanker were developed based on analytical studies, model tests and results from the SS Manhattan icebreaking tests.

Paper No. 3 — "Marine Transportation of Oil and Gas in the Alaskan Arctic" by J.G. German, M.D. MacPherson, J. Meakin and C.W. Parker.

SYNOPSIS: A number of studies prepared over the last few years have attempted to define the environmental conditions in the Arctic and to develop the marine systems which will be needed to operate them. This paper summarizes the previous work related to Arctic marine transportation and presents the results of a technical and economic comparison of a number of Arctic marine transportation alternatives which were evaluated parametrically for the U.S. Maritime Administration.

Paper No. 4—"Commercial Marine Transportation of Arctic Natural Resources" by J.B. Montgomery and C.R. Jordan.

SYNOPSIS: This paper begins by identifying the Arctic resources which are expected to be of commercial importance during the remainder of this century, their location, quantity, physical characteristics and the market location to which they must be shipped.

Three potential marine transportation systems are described in detail.

Paper No. 5—"Technical Development of An Environmentally Safe Arctic Tanker" by B. Johnasson, A. Keinonen, B. Mercer and J. Stubbs.

SYNOPSIS: Following Dome Petroleum's Arctic research and development experience, the overall safety criteria are introduced for an e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y safe nonspilling Arctic t a n k e r design.

Safety in ship/ice interactions and the prevention of major ice impacts by new remote sensing technology are addressed.

Paper No. 6 — "Development and Implementation of Ship Ice Certificates" by D.D. Maksutov and Yu. N. Popov.

SYNOPSIS: Annual growth of cargo traffic and the lengthening of the navigation season in the Arctic demand a large number of cargo and research vessels suited for ice navigation. Because of the possibility of ice damage, each ship should have an "Ice Certificate" containing i n f o r m a t i on which ensures the fail-safe operation of the ship. This paper describes the background and requirements for "Ice Certificates" in the USSR.

Paper No. 7 — "Arctic Marine Shipping Route Evaluations" by D.F. Dickens.

SYNOPSIS: Recent studies have attempted to refine our understanding of winter shipping conditions, particularly in dynamic areas such as the Beaufort Sea.

This paper uses several recent Arctic shipping route evaluations as case studies, and attempts to isolate those ice characteristics considered amenable to a reliable statistical treatment, and relevant to vessel designers and operators.

Paper No. 8—"A Ship Transit Model for Passage Through Ice and Its Application to the Labrador Area" by R.J. Gill, A. Aboul- Azm, B. Terry and W.E. Russell.

SYNOPSIS: A transit time computer model for passage through pack and continuous ice is described, and the results of its application to offshore Labrador and Lake Melville are discussed. The model uses ice conditions which are digitized along specific routes and outputs total transit time for passages at various times during the ice season.

Paper No. 9 — "Ice Conditions Affecting Navigation in the Beaufort Sea" by B.D. Wright and D.L. Schwab.

SYNOPSIS: In this paper, quantitative data on ice conditions in the Beaufort Sea are presented which include the distribution of ice type, floe size, undeformed ice areas and pressure ridge height, frequency and orientation. The data presented are currently being used in the design of offshore production systems for the Canadian Beaufort Sea.

Paper No. 10 — "A Rational Basis for Hull-Ice Strengthening Criteria" by Capt. J.L. Coburn, A. Nawwar and J.B. Montgomery.

SYNOPSIS: Several classification societies and various government regulations provide guidelines for s t r e n g t h e n i n g of ice-transiting ships. However, there are inconsistencies among these different guidelines, and ships have suffered hull damage from ice while operating in zones for which they were supposedly strengthened adequately.

This paper reports on the results of a study to develop the basis for rational selection of ice-strengthening criteria.

Paper No. 11—"On the Structural Analysis of Ice Transiting Vessels" by P.C. Xirouchakis and R. Stortstrom.

SYNOPSIS: This paper develops a methodology for a rational selection of ice-strengthening criteria for ice-transiting commercial ships so that the scantlings of structural members can be determined.

The method predicts the load carried by each transverse bulkhead, the maximum bending moments developed in t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l stringer and transverse framing which result from ice compression.

Paper No. 12 — "Evaluating Commercial Arctic Marine Transportation with Polar Class Icebreakers" by R.P. Voelker, F.W.

DeBord, T. Brennan and C.W.


SYNOPSIS: Although recent studies have shown the technical and economic potential of Alaskan Arctic marine transportation, the risk assigned by investors to this mode of transportation remains high. The U.S. Maritime A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and the U.S.

Coast Guard decided to use the Polar Class icebreakers to incrementally extend Alaskan marine routes during the winter season.

This paper presents the results of the first two years of this program and describes plans for the following years.

Paper No. 13 — "Polar Class Icebreakers — C o n t r i b u t i o n to Technology" by R.E. Kramek and R.W. Gulick.

SYNOPSIS: The purpose of this paper is to present the status and results of various tests, experiments and design modifications for the U.S. Coast Guard icebreakers, Polar Star and Polar Sea. Areas d i s c u s s e d include: Controllable-pitch propeller design, performance, ice test results, and modifications; vessel v i b r a t i o n problems and operational experience.

Paper No. 14 — "The Performance of the Controllable Pitch P r o p e l l e r s on t h e U.S. Coast Guard Polar Class Icebreakers" by D.G. Langrock, W. Wuhrer and L. Vassilopoulos.

SYNOPSIS-After initial strength problems, the 16-foot diameter, 15 MW CP propellers without ducts have been shown to stand up against the loading of an actual extended icemilling in unrestricted icebreaking operations.

This paper describes the design features of the 35.8 percent hubratio propellers and their implications for exposed icebreaker duty and explains in detail the initial serious problems with the propeller system.

Paper No. 15 — "Polar Class Icebreakers — Ice Deflection Hull Appendages; A Joint Research Effort" by R.W. Gulick, G.P.

Vance, J.R. Hill and D. Dagnel.

SYNOPSIS: Ice ingestion by the Polar Class icebreaker propellers has resulted in significant failures and resultant downtime. In 1978 the Coast Guard began an evaluation of potential ice deflecting hull appendages. This program included construction of and laboratory experiments with a 20-foot self-propelled model.

The results of these efforts and identifiable future research efforts are described.

Paper No. 16 — "A Provisional Calculation of the Icebreaking Resistance of the USCGC Polar Star" by J.A. Mcintosh and J.P.


SYNOPSIS: The Coast Guard ex- tensively instrumented the CGC Polar Star and conducted icebreaking tests on several occasions.

This paper presents the results of resistance computations based on selected portions of the data and makes comparisons with theoretical and model experiment ice resistance predictions.

Paper No. 17—"Propulsion and Its Efficiency in Ice" by K. Juurmaa and H. Segercrantz.

SYNOPSIS: Propulsion of icebreakers and icebreaking vessels has been s t u d i e d quite extensively for many years. Experience in the Baltic and in the Soviet Arctic during the last 5-10 years has shown that all main problems are now well under control.

Helsinki Shipyard has conducted several full-scale trials and model tests to study the efficiency of propulsion in ice. This paper presents some results of model tests of propellers in open water and ridged ice fields and pure propeller efficiency in ice.

Paper No. 18 — "Prediction of the Icebreaking Performance of the German Polar Research Vessel" by J. Schwarz, P. Jochmann and L. Hoffmann.

SYNOPSIS: In order to fulfill the requirements for becoming a full member of the Antarctic Treaty Countries, the government of the Federal Republic of Germany has decided to build a polar research vessel. The hull form of this research vessel has been designed by the Hamburg Ship Model Basin.

The most important achievement was the development of ship lines which prevent the ingestion of ice into the propellers. This paper covers ice technological aspects of the ship and reports on model test results.

Paper No. 19 — "Division of I c e b r e a k e r Ice Resistance into Components" by I.I. Poznvak and B.P. Ionov.

SYNOPSIS—For the development of a concept design of an icebreaker it is necessary to have a scientific, soundly based method of estimating ice resistance and of dividing the total ice resistance into components. This paper deals with the results of theoretical and experimental studies concerning the division of the ice resistance into its c o m p o n e n ts and a proposed method for their estimation.

Paper No. 20 — "An Experimental Study of Hull Forms for the New Japanese Antarctic Observation Ship" by S. Narita and M. Yamaguchi.

SYNOPSIS: The Japanese Government is building the nation's second Antarctic observation ship.

The new vessel is to be a 30,000- shp, triple-screw polar icebreaker and will be twice as powerful as her predecessor. This paper describes the results of the experimental study of hull forms for both icebreaking capability, conducted at HSVA, and open-water propulsive performance, conducted at the NKK Tsu Ship Model Basin.

Paper No. 21—"Icebreaker Bow Forms—A Parametric Variation" by P. Noble and V. Bulat.

SYNOPSIS: Using the lines of Canada's most recent class of icebreaker, the "R" Class, as a starting point, a model test program was undertaken to investigate possible improvements in level ice resistance and ridge penetration c a p a b i l i t y which might result from changes in the forebody shape of the vessel. A parent hull model and three variants were tested in the Artec Canada ice towing basin. This paper describes the developments of the various hull forms, the test program and the results of the analysis of the model test data.

Paper No. 22 — "Study of Ship Ice Performance in Narrow Channels" by V.I. Kashtelyan and L.G.


SYNOPSIS: The growth of the dimensions of ice class ships is inhibited by the dimensions of icebreakers employed in convoys.

The width of a channel controlled by the breadth of the icebreaker has proved one of the most important factors a f f e c t i n g s h ip speed in the icebreaker channel.

This study is an assessment of the effects of relative channel width on ship speed in an icebreaker channel. Some full-scale results and the results of model tests in the Arctic and Antarctic Institute, Leningrad, are given.

Paper No. 23—"Results of Full- Scale Trials in Ice of CCGS Pierre Radisson" by R.Y. Edwards, B.

Johnson, M. Dunne, G. Comfort and V. Bulat.

SYNOPSIS: In July, 1978, the Canadian Coast Guard accepted delivery of the first of the "RClass" i c e b r e a k e r s , the CCGS Pierre Radisson. The ship was extensively instrumented prior to her maiden voyage which was to take her from Victoria, B.C., through the Northwest Passage to her new home port of Quebec.

Full-scale data gathered in thick first-year and multi-year ice in the Arctic and subsequently during winter operations provided performance information for a wide range of ice types, thickness and strength. This data is presented together with 1/36-scale model experiment results.

Paper No. 24—"Performance of CCGS Franklin in Lake Melville 1980" by M. Michailidis and D.C.


SYNOPSIS: This paper presents ice performance data of CCGS Franklin as obtained from trials during two probes into Lake Mel- ville in early 1980. Comparisons with clear water overload and some icebreaking model tests are given. Stresses o b t a i n e d f r om strain gauge rosettes in selected bow locations also are reported.

Paper No. 25—"Full-Scale Icebreaking Tests of the USCGC Katmai Bay" by G.P. Vance, A.S.

Gracewski and M.J. Goodwin.

SYNOPSIS: This paper describes the full-scale icebreaking tests conducted on the USCGC Katmai Bay, the first of a new class of USCG icebreaking tugs. Analysis of the data indicates that the vessel could penetrate up to 22 inches of homogeneous sheet ice with 3 inches of snow cover and up to 48 inches of brash ice. The vessel has an installed bubbler system and a low friction coating.

This paper describes the tests that were conducted, the instrumentation utilized and an analysis of the results.

Paper No. 26—"Ice Effects and Ship Performance Data Gathering System on Board the Icebreaking Bulk Carrier M.V. Arctic" by J.D. Hearnshaw, J.G.

German, A. Benjamin, J. Stirling and P. Timonin.

SYNOPSIS: The decision to provide a permanently installed instrumentation system aboard the i c e - s t r e n g t h e n e d cargo vessel M.V. Arctic and to gather iceperformance data over a number of Arctic shipping seasons, was taken by Transport Canada in 1977. This paper describes the evolution of the scientific evaluation program, the development, details and installation in the ship of an instrumentation system, the data collection undertaken and the results of data analysis achieved to this point in the five-year program.

Special Activities All social events and special activities are open to both registrants and their guests.

Ice-Breaker Reception, Tuesday, June 16, 5:30 p.m. to 7:30 p.m. Burgundy Room. For those early arrivals who wish to meet new and old friends, a cocktail party will take place.

Ladies' Hospitality Suite will be provided in the Burgundy Room on the hotel mezzanine floor. It will be open Wednesday through Friday.

Film Program—In parallel with t h e t e c h n i c a l s e s s i o n s , in the Cartier Room, there will be a screening of films about the exploration, the ecology, the people and the economic development of Arctic regions.

Authors / Moderators Briefing will take place in the Salon L'Orangerie on the mezzanine floor at 7:00 a.m. to 7:45 a.m. on Wednesday, June 17.

Orientation Breakfast—A welcoming breakfast preceding and outlining the technical sessions will be held in the Adam Room at 7:45 a.m. on Wednesday, June 17.

President's Reception—Society President John J. Nachtsheim will receive all registrants and guests at the National Art Centre which is located across Confederation Square from the Chateau Laurier on Wednesday, June 17, at 6:30 p.m.

President's Luncheon will be held in the hotel's Ballroom on Thursday, June 18 at 12:15 p.m.

It will feature the presentation of several important awards and an address by Mr. Nachtsheim.

Reception and Capital City Ball —A gala evening featuring dinner, dancing and musical entertainment, with a distinct Canadian flavor will be held in the Ballroom on Thursday, June 18, starting at 7:30 p.m. It will be preceded by a reception in the Drawing Room, starting at 6:30 p.m. Dress is optional.

Information Further information about the 1981 Spring Meeting/STAR Symposium, Ice Tech '81, may be obtained f r om the Society, One World Trade Center, Suite 1369, New York, N.Y. 10048.

Maritime Reporter Magazine, page 36,  May 1981

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