Prior to the 1970s, drydocking intervals were determined primarily based on the speed with which a vessel became fouled.

Today, of course, this is no longer true because of the introduction of self-polishing copolymer antifouling paint by major marine suppliers almost two decades ago. Now ships can be specified to remain free from serious fouling between drydockings required by engineering maintenance schedules. In the case of some larger vessels, this could mean being out of dry dock for as long as five years. As a result, ship operators have reaped enormous cost savings. Some estimates indicate that improved ship bottom maintenance, due for the most part to self-polishing copolymer antifoulings, has netted operators a savings of $2.4 billion annually.

These estimates do not include additional savings in drydock costs and off-hire charges.

Now, however, because of imminent or already enacted legislation around the world limiting the use of self-polishing copolymer antifoulings containing tributyltin compounds, major coatings suppliers are or have introduced new TBTfree systems.

This review examines some of the new TBT-free coatings offered by the major marine suppliers, as well as corrosion control systems, surface preparation and application equipment.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION— If you would like further information on any of the products listed in this review, circle the corresponding Reader Service number on the postpaid cards bound into the back of this magazine.

AMERON Ten years ago, Ameron developed the formulation techniques which now permit the manufacture of coatings that can stand up in today's tough regulatory climate while maintaining high levels of performance.

In the early 1980s, Ameron introduced Amerlock 400, a high-solids, high-build epoxy which offers surface- tolerant corrosion protection.

Even today, Amerlock 400 surpasses all EPA VOC requirements. Several years later, Amershield, a highbuild VOC-compliant polyurethane, joined Amerlock.

Based on the experience gained from the successes of Amerlock and Amershield, Ameron now offers its "Environmentally Designed" line— high-performance coatings for users who require the alternative of environmentally sound products.

An Ameron ED coating is made to perform as well as the conventional coating it replaces. This strict adherence to performance extends throughout the product line, from alkyds and latexes used in less critical areas to tank linings and antifoulings which see the most demanding service.

All ED coatings meet the most stringent VOC regulations in effect in California AQMDs. At this time California is the only state that has imposed VOC regulations on marine coatings.

Furthermore, since OSHA has established reportable limits for lead, arsenic, selenium, mercury, etc., Ameron monitors its raw materials so that all ED coatings contain less than reportable levels of heavy metals.

Ameron reports its ED coatings do not contain methyl and ethyl cellosolves or their acetates. Additionally, ED coatings technology makes it possible to duplicate with leadand chrome-free pigments the same colors as with conventional lead and chrome pigments.

ED coatings are applicable using standard application techniques and are no more difficult to apply than their conventional predecessors.

For free literature detailing Ameron's ED coatings, Circle 72 on Reader Service Card BARTELL Improper surface preparation can be a major source of coating failures.

Bartell Industries Inc., Brampton, Ontario, Canada, offers what it believes is a cost-effective, efficient solution.

Called the S.P.S.®, the unit is an extremely versatile surface preparation device. Equipped with optional power plants, including air for marine applications, and a variety of multipurpose interchangeable tools that make surface cleaning easy, the S.P.S. can be operated by one man, combining light weight with compact size and high performance.

S.P.S. removes coatings such as standard and epoxy paints, oil and grease deposits, urethane, rubber membranes, and marine non-skid.

Developed specifically for marine usage, the silicon carbide disc attachment cleans aluminum and removes coatings from aluminum and stainless steel surfaces.

Engineered to be durable, the S.P.S. offers users a scabbier and shot blast in one machine and has been used around the world in fleet maintenance and surface preparation applications.

For further information on Bartell's S.P.S., Circle 36 on Reader Service Card CARBOLINE Carboline Company, a division of RPM, Inc., a leading developer and manufacturer of protective coatings and linings distributed worldwide, reports a one-coat application of CGard 1207, applied directly to blasted steel, concrete surfaces or fusion bonded epoxy coated pipe provides a high build, impact-resistant coating for floors, platforms, risers, structural steel and decks in harsh environments.

Resistant to chloride and water, C-Gard can be applied in splash zone areas which are continuously immersed in aerated seawater, such as offshore piers and legs.

The three-component epoxy cladding is 100 percent solids by volume, suitable for airless spray application.

C-Gard's one-coat coverage, on vertical and horizontal surfaces, can be used for over fusion bonded coatings or directly on bare blasted steel—no primer needed. Topcoating is not required.

For further information on CGard 1207, Circle 37 on Reader Service Card CHESAPEAKE SPECIALTY PRODUCTS Chesapeake Specialty Products, the manufacturer of METgrain steel abrasives, has developed an abrasive reclaiming system that effectively cleans and separates steel abrasive blast media from mill scale, paint chips and dust. Don Sanchez, president of Chesapeake Spe- cialty Products, said that by blast cleaning and recycling abrasives, blast cleaning costs far less than blasting with mineral abrasives, and disposal problems are drastically reduced.

Mr. Sanchez claims steel abrasives can typically be recycled up to 1,000 times, reducing the effective cost of steel abrasive to pennies per ton.

Chesapeake Specialty Products, Inc., located in Baltimore, Md., provides high-quality steel abrasives used in steel surface preparation for the maritime industry, steel fabrication, bridge resurfacing and railcar industry. The firm also produces ferrous oxides used in magnetics and foundries.

For more information and free literature from Chesapeake Specialty Products, Circle 73 on Reader Service Card CORROLESS INTERNATIONAL Corroless International, a specialist corrosion control company, has just secured its first Lloyd's Register "Certificate of Approval of Corrosion Control Coatings" for use in vessels classed by LR. The approval is for the company's Corroguard EP range in the limited experience category for use in ships' ballast tanks.

Project management can effectively relieve a shipowner of all the headaches associated with corrosion control within his entire fleet.

Operational managers will organize trained riding squads to undertake all aspects of preparation and application of the chosen anti-corrosion systems, while the vessel is onroute between ports.

Upon completion of a project, a full inspection is undertaken to ensure that all work has been completed to the required standards and then a managed maintenance agreement is incorporated, which monitors the applied systems throughout the agreed contract period, thus enabling both parties to react quickly and effectively and thereby ensuring the integrity of the anti-corrosion system throughout the extended operational life of the vessel.

Corroless International plans to launch a new range of corrosion control systems developed specifically for the marine industry during the first quarter of this year.

For free literature detailing the corrosion control products and services of Corroless International, Circle 74 on Reader Service Card CTI INDUSTRIES CTI Industries, Inc., Stratford, Conn., is a full service organization providing restoration and preventive maintenance service and products for heat exchangers, condensers and associated equipment. CTI's Coating Division specializes in the formulation of high performance NOVOS® coatings amd technically demanding specialty applications.

NOVOS coatings are a 100 percent solids epoxy based for superior protection in harsh environments found in the marine, utility and chemical industries. NOVOS 151 is unique in combining excellent physical and chemical properties with complete tolerance of wet—even submerged—surfaces. Turnkey specialty applications have been successfully completed worldwide on high value and critical equipment.

Particular evidence is offered in the marine and utility industries where solutions to unusual or difficult problems are required.

CTI Industries' patented tube restoration system eliminates the need to replace condenser and heat exchanger tubing in over 85 percent of tube failure situations. For various forms of erosion/corrosion in tube inlets, CTI Shield/Seals® have reportedly proved to be a very successful and cost-effective tube restoration technique.

Operating worldwide, CTI serves the merchant marine, the U.S.

Navy, major utilities, refineries, desalination plants, and chemical processing plants.

For free literature detailing the products of CTI, Circle 38 on Reader Service Card ESGARD Esgard, Inc., Lafayette, La., has been protecting marine vessels and offshore equipment for almost 20 years. Primary products are ballast and void coatings, protective gears oils and a complete line of paints.

Of particular interest to marine operators is the introduction of an improved Bio Kote for protection of ballast and void areas. While still offering the same safe, nonpolluting, nonhazardous properties as before, the new formulation cures more quickly, has enhanced resistance to immersion and chemicals and therefore increased protective performance.

It is still a single package coating which goes on over minimally prepared surfaces and is easy to apply. An interesting use for Bio Kote is as a primer on the underside of hatch covers. After curing, it can be overcoated with ordinary alkyd paint.

Both Bio Kote and Bio Float are available worldwide as Esgard stocking locations are Lafayette, Rotterdam, Hamburg, Piraeus and Singapore. Sales and service representatives are located on the U.S.

Gulf Coast, in the New York area, Germany, Norway, Holland, Great Britain, Greece and Singapore.

Another Esgard product, PL-2, has recently received qualification under MU-C-16173D Grade 2 (p-2 preservatives). The intended use of PL-2 is during manufacturing or lay-up of machined metal parts, power transmissions, gears, reducers, prefabricated piping, fill and drain voids, lube oil lines and other inaccessible, nonpainted areas.

Product features include superior protection, ease of removability and VOC compliance. PL-2 was recently selected by Long Beach Naval Shipyard for lay-up protection of the USS New Jersey (BB-62) due to the above features.

For further information and free literature on Esgard products, Circle 39 on Reader Service Card EUREKA CHEMICAL Under soft coatings and lubricants, Eureka Chemical Company, South San Francisco, Calif., manufactures the wool-wax-based Fluid Film® product line. The products consist of long term corrosion preventive gels, liquid coatings for general maintenance and grease lubricants which are used in numerous applications from salt water ballast tank protection, rudder void, stern tube, anchor chain-locker, winch, wire-rope, valve, pump, piping, electronic equipment, container turnbuckle, to other topside appendages, as well as vessels in lay-up.

The Fluid Film product line offers ship, offshore drill rig, barge, floating drydock, and shipyard operators preventive maintenance of structures and components at low cost because the coatings and lubricants can be applied over light rust or heavily corroded surfaces with minimal or no surface preparation.

Ship operators are electing to initially apply the Fluid Film liquid coatings by spray or flotation as an interim measure to impede further corrosion in salt water ballast tanks, penetrating the rust-scale, thereby causing exfoliation. After several months to one year, a re-application is made to the cleaned surface to provide ongoing protection. Costly labor intensive or mechanical cleaning is not required in such procedures and often the work is performed by the ships' crew.

Recently, Eureka Chemical Company expanded its wire-rope dressings to include a new product, WRO-EP, which is manufactured to Mil-G-18458. This addition complements a full range of liquid to stiff grease wire-rope dressings manufactured by the company.

Because the Fluid Film product line is non-solvent based, the company claims it will last longer and will not evaporate nor dry out compared with solvent-based products.

For free literature detailing Eureka Chemical products, Circle 40 on Reader Service Card GRACO For over 60 years, Graco, headquartered in Golden Valley, Minn., has been a leader in spray finishing and paint circulating technology.

Graco offers its customers a wide array of products ranging from manual and automatic atomizing devices, fluid circulation and application systems, and finishing robots and their associated hardware and software.

Graco products fill the needs of virtually every segment of the fluid handling market, from inplant lubrication and cleaning systems to computer-driven robotic finishing systems. Its primary product line consists of: airspray guns; airless spray guns; air-assisted airless spray guns; electrostatic spray guns; centrifugal atomizers (bell and discs); spray painting robots; high volume circulation systems; and related programmable controls and monitoring devices.

For free literature detailing the products of Graco, Circle 41 on Reader Service Card GLOBALTECH Globaltech, Houston, Texas, offers Premier Pro-Tec 900 hull coating, an overcoat which is applied over a ship's antifoulant paint.

According to the company, an application of Premier Pro-Tec 900 will allow antifoulant paint to remain active, repelling marine growth for over two years.

Globaltech reports Premier Pro- Tec 900 controls the leaching of toxins in the antifoulant paints. Because of this, the integrity of the antifoulant lasts longer. A special sunscreen ingredient retards the biodegradation of most antifoulant paints caused by exposure to intense sunlight. Premier Pro-Tec 900 sets up a barrier between the antifoulant system and any pollutants that might be in port to prolong life of most antifoulant paint systems.

Premier Pro-Tec 900 has been developed, tested and used for over six years on a total of 2.5 million tons of commercial ships, pleasure boats and watercraft around the world.

For free literature on Premier Pro-Tec 900, Circle 42 on Reader Service Card HEMPEL COATINGS Hempel Marine & Protective Coatings, one of the world's largest independent suppliers of marine paint, has developed a full range of tin-free compositions which includes the EPA compliant Olympic- Hi 7660 to complement the existing EPA-approved copolymer antifoulant Combic 7699. All of these coatings provide excellent antifouling performance and economic hull management when tailored to a vessel's individual operating parameters.

Because of emerging Volatile Organic Content (VOC) regulations, which concern the nature/volume of solvent released by a coating, Hempel has developed two distinct product ranges which are both environmental and user friendly.

One is Hempadur 4514/15, a high solids mastic group possessing low VOC characteristics, low temperature tolerance, inherit generic toughness and exceptional wetting properties which enables them to provide performance on marginal substrates where practical, budgetary or environmental aspects restrict the degree of surface preparation.

A second range of waterborne acrylic coatings known as Hemucryl is suitable for use on steel, other metals and concrete. Environmental and user friendly alternatives to single pack solvent-borne coatings, Hemucryl exposure tests have shown equal and indeed superior corrosion protection. For vessel interiors they offer additional benefits, having a VOC of only 0-85g/Ltr (a traditional alkyd being around 340 g/Ltr) and gloss retention .

For free literature detailing Hempel Marine's line of coatings, Circle 43 on Reader Service Card INTERNATIONAL PAINT International Paint, one of the world's leading marine coatings manufacturers, is continuing its introduction of new and ecologically sound products to the marine industry.

Intergard KB400 Series is a twopack modified epoxy ballast tank coating which offers a tough, resilient system specially formulated to be extremely water resistant and is designed specifically for salt or fresh water ballast tank service.

Intergard KB400 is a long life high-performance coating with surface tolerant characteristics that may reduce costs at initial application.

Intergard KB400 is also an environmentally friendly material which complies with all existing VOC requirements.

Coatings application may be safely accomplished anywhere in the world due to this compliance plus excellent health and safety benefits.

Interviron BRA600 Series antifouling offers better performance through improved biocide release mechanisms. This feature coupled with higher solids to reduce costs and assured cleaner chemistry is based on proven Interclene BRA500 Series performance on vessels operating in all the oceans of the world.

Based upon 10 years of proven tank coating technology Intergard TH600 Series is the latest addition to the international tank coating range.

Specifically designed for the requirements of the U.S. product tank coating market, Intergard TH600 is a high solids, high flash VOC compliant coating that provides a tough, hard, easily cleaned semi-gloss finish.

A user friendly product, formulated with the applicator in mind, Intergard TH600 offers a wide cargo resistance list and completes the current international range of superior coatings for nearly any tank coating situation from ballast tanks to aggressive chemicals.

For free literature detailing the coatings products of International Paint, Circle 44 on Reader Service Card MARINE COATINGS INTERNATIONAL Marine Coatings International, Atlanta, Ga., offers Barnacl-X, a two-part epoxy coating that contains pure copper (not cuprous oxide or TBT). Barnacl-X dries to an extremely hard, yet flexible finish that is achieved with only one 15 mil coat. Barnacl-X may be applied to any clean steel, concrete, fiberglass or wood surface without a primer.

According to the company, because Barnacl-X is a 100 percent solids coating and is non-ablative, there is no adverse impact on the environment from solvents released into the atmosphere or from toxins being released into the oceans, lakes and rivers.

With only one coat required using Barnacl-X (drying time—12 hours to launch), the amount of time that your product is tied-up in the coating operation is reduced considerably, making expensive labor and valuable work space more productive.

Existing marine paint systems require several coats of different products and each of these coatings require several manhours per application and several hours to cure before the next coating may be applied.

Barnacl-X can cure while under water, making repairs and patching with the product much easier and more cost effective.

An epoxy coating is much more durable than some other coatings and will not chip, blister or peel.

The company claims that Barnacl- X, which can be applied by airless spray, roller or brush, is eight times more abrasive resistant than some premium marine anti-fouling paints and has an anti-fouling service life three to five times longer than commercial anti-fouling paints.

Enviro Coatings, Inc., Dallas, Texas, is the exclusive distributor for Barnacl-X.

For free literature detailing Barnacl- X, Circle 45 on Reader Service Card NORTHSTAR MFG.

Northstar Manufacturing Company, Inc., Spring, Texas, produces the innovative protective equipment designed for coaters, blasters and painters. The ASH-301 has approval through MSHA/NIOSH as a type C or CE respirator. The approvals permit the respirator to be used as a paint hood, as well as an abrasive blast hood. The hard shell meets ANSI standards for face and eye protection, yet the complete unit weighs less than 5 pounds. The foam inner liner gently holds the head in order to hold the wide viewing window in place. The foam also distributes quieter air throughout the inner chamber and fits over the ears for additional hearing protection.

The 301-14 airline filter was designed to provide cleaner, safer air on a more stable base for use in blasting yards or in a shop environment.

The replaceable filter cartridge traps and removes 98 percent of impurities down to 1/2 micron in size. Northstar also manufactures a disposable hood, full face constant flows respirator and approved breathing air hoses.

For further information on Northstar Manufacturing protective equipment, Circle 46 on Reader Service Card REED MINERALS Moisture in your blasting system costs you money in labor and wasted abrasives. Therefore, Reed Minerals, Highland, Ind., a division of Harsco Corporation, recently announced the release of two products for its Moisture Removal System for use in surface preparation: An air-cooled aftercooler removes reportedly up to 70 percent of the damaging water from your compressed air; A pre-cooler/re-heater reheats the air, to expand the volume of your compressed air and separate the dewpoint further to assure no moisture condensation is in your system.

This new system virtually eliminates the need to "choke" your valves, according to Reed Minerals.

No more wasted labor cleaning and discarding saturated abrasives. No more wasted abrasive that clogs your system instead of cleaning your surface. This system can also prevent motor freeze-ups due to moisture.

Lines for air-fed hoods may be tapped in after the aftercooler, providing cool, moisture-free air in the summer, and after the re-heater in the cold months to provide warm moisture-free air.

For further information on the Moisture Removal System distributed by Reed Minerals, Circle 47 on Reader Service Card SCHMIDT MFG.

Schmidt Manufacturing, Inc., Fresno, Texas, established in 1972, is a major manufacturer of quality abrasive blasting equipment. The firm has manufactured custommade equipment and engineered systems for companies around the world. Their patented valves are frequently used by other manufacturers of brand name abrasive blasting equipment.

Schmidt manufactures the Accustrip System, a specialized depainting system used by the Texas Parks & Wildlife Department in the restoration of the Battleship Texas at the Houston Ship Channel.

The Accustrip System is a new generation of safe, non-toxic abrasive blasting equipment. Designed in conjunction with a patented formulated blend of sodium bicarbonate called Armex Blast Media, the Accustrip System gives the user the ability to blast soft substrates and sensitive surfaces with virtually no damage.

The Armex Blast Media is water soluble, non-sparking, free of silicate dust and toxic fumes. The Accustrip System and Armex Blast Media is an environmentally safe process that can help you eliminate costly labor hours and give you a better surface finish for those sensitive substrates and components.

When blasting rotating equipment, the Accustrip System will not damage pumps or motor bearings, packing, mechanical seals or polished rods. The Accustrip System will remove dirt, grease and oil which eliminates the need to prewash.

This is the only process, according to the company, that can remove typical surface corrosion and the coating in the same step from alumi- num without additional tools or chemicals.

The Accustrip System is manufactured and designed with the user in mind and can be operated and maintained with minimal operator training.

For free literature detailing Schmidt Manufacturing abrasive blasting equipment, Circle 48 on Reader Service Card SIGMA COATINGS Sigma Coatings provides an economic answer to the problem of upgrading paint systems on the decks, hatch covers, piping systems and topsides of vessels currently coated with conventional alkyd or chlorinated rubber paints. This is in order to meet the Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) regulations and increase overall coating life expectancy.

When due consideration of the increasing costs of these Alkyd and CR types of paint systems is compared to their normal service life, owners are constantly looking for stronger, more durable types of coatings which have higher tolerances to adverse weather conditions and ease of application in dock or at sea. The extent of the VOC regulations is becoming increasingly evident which will result in the older conventional types of coatings from being used.

Sigma Coatings' answer is based on the epoxy Sigma CM system.

This consists of 7465 Sigma CM Miocoat as the direct to steel primer followed by 7466 Sigma CM Coating.

It can be used in conjunction with 7417 Sigma Universal primer which has a strong water-repelling composition when utilizing Hydroblasting techniques and an intermediate coat of 7461 Sigma EP Multiguard can be applied where high abrasion is required on deck or in dry cargo holds. The Sigma CM system can be applied in a two-coat system directly to steel due to its tolerance to low grade surface operation.

Ian J. Scarth, national marine manager for the U.S., said, "The numerous owners worldwide and in the U.S. who have adopted this system are very pleased with the Sigma CM's performance especially due to its resistances to the spillage of oil products and its high resistance to chalking giving good color retention, durability to abrasion and impact damage. Furthermore the CM system gives the owner an ease of maintenance and total flexibility in overcoating existing Chlorinated Rubber and Alkyd paint systems so there is no need for costly surface preparation in order to upgrade." For free literature detailing Sigma Coatings products, Circle 75 on Reader Service Card

Maritime Reporter Magazine, page 32,  Feb 1991

Read COATINGS & CORROSION CONTROL in Pdf, Flash or Html5 edition of February 1991 Maritime Reporter

Other stories from February 1991 issue


Maritime Reporter

First published in 1881 Maritime Reporter is the world's largest audited circulation publication serving the global maritime industry.