During the 1960s and early 70s, the focus of diesel engine design, development, and manufacture was on ever-increasing power outputs per unit in order to satisfy the propulsion needs of the huge tankers and the very highspeed containerships that were being designed and constructed in abundance during that period.

The rapid escalation of fuel costs following the oil crisis of 1973, as well as the trend away from superlarge tankers and 23-33 knot speeds for containerships, shifted that emphasis.

All of the major diesel engine manufacturers turned their design and R&D efforts to improving fuel economy and the capability to burn heavy, poorer quality fuel safety and efficiently. Some of the engine designs introduced re- cently have made remarkable progress towards those objectives.

FOR MORE INFORMATION MR/EN asked the diesel manufacturers to provide data on their latest developments in fuel-efficient engines. The following review is based on the replies that we had received at press time.

Product literature and technical reports are available free from the manufacturers included in this review.

Just circle the appropriate Reader Service number on the card in the back of this issue.

If you wish to receive information from all the manufacturers and suppliers of diesel engines and systems included in this review, Circle 40 on Reader Service Card ALCO POWER Circle 10 on Reader Service Card Alco Power Inc. is currently involved in a project that will add increased fuel efficiency to its model 251 diesel engine, as well as decrease the amount of time required to achieve rated horsepower and speed from engine idle speed. This is accomplished by the application of the model 131 turbocharger on the Alco 16-cylinder, model 251 CE diesel engine. This is now being tested in towboat service on the lower Mississippi and is receiving very favorable results.

Alco is also involved with the development of a new piston design to further increase fuel efficiency over its current valve-pocketed design. Although this is in its preliminary stages, Alco hopes to have it out in the marketplace shortly.

Other developments on the horizon include continued experimentation with heavy fuels, camshaft design changes, and experimentation with turbocharger application, all of which will add up to increased fuel efficiency.

Alco is now utilizing its new $2.8-million production test facility at its Auburn, N.Y., manufacturing plant to test current production model 251 engines. The engines are loaded by a microprocessor- controlled, fluid friction dynomometer and engine fluids. The new facility incorporates state-ofthe- art instrumentation, allowing most engine parameters to be measured remotely in its control room. This provides for greater onsite testing efficiency.

AMERICAN LIGURIAN Circle 11 on Reader Service Card American Ligurian Company of Stamford, Conn., represents Baudouin of Marseille, France, and Castoldi Jet of Milan and O.M.T.

of Turin, Italy.

Baudouin designs and manufactures 4-cycle, water-cooled, direct injection marine diesel engines with outputs ranging from 75 to 1,200 bhp. These engines are specifically designed for marine applications, with long life, reliable performance, and economical maintenance. All Baudoin engines have been approved by the leading classification societies.

Baudouin also designs and builds: complete oil-lubricated line shafts of 40 to 200 millimeter diameter; water-lubricated line shafts of 40-70 mm; and stern type gland systems. These line shafts, together with the stern tube, couplings, bearings, seals, and the entire technical method of installation provides a fully proven assembly.

Castoldi hydrojet marine propulsion units include five lines, 03-07, applicable to engines with outputs from 5 to 1,400 bhp.

Complete marine units include: The Castoldi/B&S 700/03, aircooled, 13.2-kw direct-coupled unit; the Castoldi/Fiat 970/04, watercooled 22.09-kw direct-coupled unit; and five Castoldi/Fiat water-cooled units ranging from 38.3 to 99.3 kw.

O.M.T. offers for the OEM and after-sales markets a line of nozzles, nozzle holders, injection pumps, plungers, and delivery valves that are interchangeable with the ones used by the leading diesel engine builders.

BERGEN DIESEL Circle 12 on Reader Service Card A.S. Bergens Mekaniske Verksteder (Bergen Diesel) of Norway has used heavy fuel in its engines for more than 20 years and has very solid experience in this field.

Some 500 engines, both propulsion and generator sets, are in operation on heavy fuel, with the longest running times in excess of 100,000 hours. The company's U.S.

subsidiary, Bergen Diesel, Inc., is located in Kenner (New Orleans), La.

This extensive experience, together with in-depth development work to meet the challenges of the poorer quality fuels, has meant that Bergen Diesel today delivers its K engine for unrestricted operation with fuel viscosities up to 700 cSt at 50 C. The K engine is delivered in in-line form with three, five, six, eight, and nine cylinders, and as a V engine with 12, 16, and 18 cylinders. With a speed range of 720 to 900 rpm and mean effective pressures of 16—18 bars, they cover a power output range of 600 to 4,500 bhp. Their main applications applications are in generating sets and propulsion engines for ships.

Despite the declining quality, recent experience with heavy oil has shown very good operational results, for example, 10,000 hours between cylinder head overhauls and 20,000 hours for the running gear. Upper cylinder liner wear is less than 0.01 mm per 1,000 hours, and the life of the cylinder liner is about 60,000 hours.

Recently there have been great improvements in this area, due mainly to higher injection pressures and reduced nozzle hole size.

Both contribute to better atomization and thereby improved combustion, particularly of the heavier hydrocarbons that today's heavy oils contain. The injection period is also reduced, which gives a considerable reduction in fuel consumption.

Optimum fuel consumptions are now 142 grams per bhp hour without engine-driven lube oil and cooling water pumps, and 145 grams per bhp hour with engine-driven pumps.

Special attention has been given to the hydraulic forces arising in the fuel system, which insures a longer life for the nozzles and pump components. The system is designed for and endurance tested at an injection pressure of 1,500 bars, but in normal operation runs at a maximum of about 1,200 bars, This insures an essential safety margin if the viscosity control system were to fail.

Brown Boveri turbochargers, type VTR series 1, are in general use for all Bergens K-type engines.

The charging system is based on the impulse principle, as this is considered to be the best, both with respect to the engines' ability to cope with shock loading, and because it gives greater air flow rates at part load than the constant- pressure system. At part load, ample quantities of air are essential to insure complete combustion of heavy oil; the low frictional losses of the turbocharger (ball bearings) also help here.

For the 8- and 16-cylinder engines, pulse converters are employed.

This normally results in widely varying exhaust gas temperatures for the individual cylinders, but this is avoided on K engines with the help of a specially shaped exhaust gas system.

BMW OF NORTH AMERICA Circle 13 on Reader Service Card BMW (Bavarian Motor Works) the German automobile, motorcy- cle, and engine manufacturer, has set its sights on an expanding share of the future marine market in the U.S. The American marine division, BMW of North America, is located in Montvale, N.J.

BMW's turbocharged sterndrive diesel, designated the D-190-S, is being installed in increasing numbers in many of America's mid-size boats. This rugged, precision-built power plant is a 190-bhp, sixcylinder in-line diesel. Weighing just 1,061 pounds, the compact unit provides responsive power quietly throughout its speed range.

The turbocharger forces extra volumes of air into the cylinders to mix with a larger fuel charge, creating additional power. The combustion process is efficient and the engine runs smoothly. The increased air flow keeps temperatures lower, and the manifold is water-jacketed to keep the temperatures relatively constant, contributing to longer engine life. An exceptionally large air filter helps keep sound levels low.

The D-190-S features BMW's double-circuit cooling system, in which the heat exchanger, oil cooler, and expansion tank are completely integrated as a single entity. This is a further contribution to its low weight and high power-to-weight ratio.

BOYCE MACHINERY Circle 43 on Reader Service Card Jerry T. Boyce, executive vice president of sales and marketing for Boyce Machinery Corporation, has announced the introduction of a new concept in engine service packages for Caterpillar engine owners in South Louisiana. The new packages will be marketed as Diesel Engine Maintenance and Repair Options. The Boyce program is a systematic approach to reduce costs and increase engine life through proper preventive maintenance.

Options range from a diesel tuneup to a complete engine overhaul, or Boyce-Built (remanufactured, rebuilt, or exchange) engine.

Boyce starts with a repair determination inspection and recommends an option that is best matched to the condition of the engine.

The company currently has programs available for the Cat D399, D398, D379, D353, 3306, and 3208 model engines, and is working on plans for the 3304, 3406, 3408, and 3412 models.

All options carry the full Boyce warranty, guaranteed prices, and guaranteed turnaround time. Welldefined options reduce costs, save time, avoid over-repair, and enable engine owners to schedule work.

Boyce Machinery is South Louisiana's Caterpillar and Pettibone dealer, with branches in New Orleans, Baton Rouge, Lafayette, Morgan City, Lake Charles, and Reserve.

CATERPILLAR Circle 14 on Reader Service Card Caterpillar Engine Division offers five series—3200, 3300, 3400, 300, and 3500—of diesel engines in 12 basic models applied specifically in marine propulsion and auxiliary power applications. The 3200 series offer ratings from 150 to 315 bhp at 2,400 and 2,800 rpm, respectively. The 3300 series offer ratings from 85 to 290 bhp at 2,000 and 2,200 rpm. The 3400 series offer ratings from 250 to 764 bhp at 1,800 and 2,100 rpm. The 300 series offer ratings from 500 to 1,380 bhp at 1,225 and 1,300 rpm.

The 3500 series offer ratings from 600 to 1,700 bhp at 1,200 and 1,800 rpm.

When Caterpillar goes into production of its medium-speed 3600 series in 1985, the company will offer four additional models with a continuous output range from 1,700 bhp at 700 rpm to 6,000 bhp at 1,000 rpm.

Time-proven Cat diesel power provides optimum marine propulsion reliability, efficiency, and economy due to such features as direct injection, adjustment-free fuel systems, and matched turbocharging and aftercooling to pack more air into cylinders for complete combustion and extra power.

Available for all of the main propulsion engines is a complete line of factory-matched marine transmissions to assure operational efficiency. Coordinated design compatibility allows common scheduling of major overhauls, reducing repair time and expense.

In addition, Caterpillar offers 11 models of marine generator sets with power outputs and voltages for every vessel's service requirements.

Prime power ratings are offered from 85 kw for the 3304B at 1,800 rpm to 1,135 kw at 1,800 rpm for the 3516 (60Hz); 50-Hz ratings are also available from 50 to 1,025 kw. A full range of attachments such as power takeoffs, remote-mounted controls, premium instrument panels, and spare parts kits are also available to meet specific user requirements.

Cat marine systems are backed by a worldwide product support system, linked by the industry's most extensive computer and telecommunications network for rapid location of any part required. More than 14,000 trained dealer servicemen are backed by 24 strategically located Cat parts facilities.

Around-the-clock dockside service is available in many ports from technicians and application and installation specialists that use the latest service tools and information.

COLT INDUSTRIES Circle 15 on Reader Service Card Major renovations and manufacturing additions are under way at Colt Industries, Fairbanks Morse Engine Division, in Beloit, Wis.

These are in preparation to build the Colt-Pielstick PC4.2V diesel engine for the U.S. Navy's new Henry J. Kaiser (T-AO-187) Class tanker under construction at Avondale Shipyards. Included in these new projects are the installation of a 46,900-bhp water brake test stand, a 250-ton bridge crane, and several new machining centers.

Two 10-cylinder PC4.2V diesel engines rated at 16,500 bhp are currently being built for the Navy's T-AO Tanker Program. The PC4.2V is rated from 16,270 to 29,286 bhp, and is capable of burning residual fuels of up to 4,000 sec Redwood 1 at 100 F with a vanadium content of 400 ppm.

Fairbanks Morse continues to produce the Colt-Pielstick PC2.3V, PC2.5V, and PC2.6L in-line and V-form diesel engines, with ratings from 6,420 to 13,266 bhp at 520 rpm. All of these engines are capable of burning heavier grades of residual fuels.

The Colt-Pielstick marine engine is readily adaptable to remote control operation and automatic monitoring. Systems have been designed to meet U.S. Coast Guard and American Bureau of Shipping requirements for an unmanned engine room watch. The wellknown Fairbanks Morse opposedpiston design is still widely used in marine applications. Four each of the Colt-Pielstick PC2.5V, and the Fairbanks Morse opposedpiston engines, provide propulsion power and electric power, respectively, for the Navy's ongoing LSD program.

Fairbanks Morse 38D8-1/8 series opposed-piston diesels are available in configurations from four through 12 cylinders in both blower-scavenged and turbocharged versions, with power ranges from 708 to 3,500 bhp at 750 rpm, and 920 to 4,200 bhp at 900 rpm. This two-cycle, opposedpiston configuration provides an impressive power-to-weight ratio with minimum space requirements.

This engine has been used in marine propulsion and power generation applications since the mid-1930s. These engines have always had high fuel efficiency, but today's sophisticated electronic control and monitoring systems are squeezing even better fuel economy from them. In addition to applications such as the LSD Program, this engine provides power for secondary propulsion systems and emergency power for submarines.

In a move to strengthen its entire parts and service organization and to coordinate all field service activities for Fairbanks Morse and Colt-Pielstick engines, the company is undertaking a major restructuring designed to improve all aspects of customer services worldwide. As part of this restructuring, present parts and service facilities are being upgraded and modernized, and new centers are being added. In Beloit, a new training center has been completed to provide hands-on engine service training for Fairbanks Morse and customer personnel.

Typical of the modernization that is taking place in all the service centers is the recently completed move in Norfolk, Va. In its new location, this center now has the capability to handle complete engine rebuilding. A new regional distribution warehouse in Reno, Nev., has been established as the Western Service Region headquarters.

This warehouse is designed to complement the existing service shop in Seattle and sales office in San Francisco with improved inventory control and distribution.

In addition, a new and modern fuel injection overhaul facility has been located at Reno to provide complete fuel injection service. All of the centers are computer-integrated with the central warehouse in Beloit to quickly process requirements for special and madeto- order parts.

CUMMINS Circle 16 on Reader Service Card Cummins Engine Company of Columbus, Ind., manufactures six series of marine propulsion engines.

Designed for heavy-duty workboat and fishing vessel applications, the Cummins engines are rated at 170 to 1,250 bhp for continuous 24-hour propulsion service.

Several reverse and reduction gears are available for each model.

The compact V series engines are V8 configuration with "oversquare" cylinders in which the bore diameter is larger than the stroke. Combining high horsepower, campact size, and light weight, the V-504-M is a naturally aspirated engine rated 170 continuous bhp at 2,800 rpm. The 555 series are naturally aspirated when rated for continuous duty at 185 bhp at 2,800 rpm.

The V/VT/VTA-903 series marine diesels have the oversquare cylinder design and range in horsepower from 255 to 320, continuous duty. The V903-M is naturally aspirated and rated 255 bhp, the VT-903-M is turbocharged rated at 285 bhp, and the VTA-903-M is both turbocharged and aftercooled rated at 320 bhp.

All are rated for continuous operation at 2,300 rpm.

The N/NT/NTA-855-M series engines is Cummins's most proven diesel. They are 6-cylinder, in-line engines and operate at 1,800 rpm.

The N-855-M is naturally aspirated and rated for continuous duty at 195 bhp; the NT-855-M is turbocharged and rated 270 or 240 bhp; the NTA-855-M is both turbocharged and aftercooled and rated at 350 bhp.

The KT/KTA series engines are in-line 6-cylinder models. The KT-1150-M is a turbocharged model rated 365 or 400 bhp at 1,800 rpm, and the KTA-1150-M is turbocharged and aftercooled and rated 500 bhp at 1,800 rpm.

The VT/VTA-1710 series are 12- cylinder, V-configuration diesels.

The VT-1710-M is turbocharged, rated 490 bhp at 1,800 rpm; the VTA-1710-M is turbocharged and aftercooled, with continuous ratings of 545 or 620 bhp at 1,800 rpm.

Introduced into the fishing vessel and workboat markets in 1974 and 1980, respectively, the KT/KTA-2300-M and KTA-3067- M series complete the Cummins product line with the high horsepower, reliability, durability, and fuel economy required for such engine applications. The 2300 series are 12-cylinder, V-configuration design with ratings of 800 bhp at 1,800 rpm for the KT, and 940 bhp at 1,800 rpm for the turbocharged and aftercooled KTA. The turbocharged and aftercooled KTA-3067- M is a 16-cylinder model rated 1,250 bhp at 1,800 rpm.

DAIHATSU Circle 17 on Reader Service Card With its extensive experience in the marine field, Daihatsu Diesel Manufacturing Co. Ltd. of Osaka, Japan, represented in North America by Daihatsu Diesel (U.S.A.) Inc., has developed a new type of engine, the DL series, which features low quality fuel burning, low load operability, and low fuel consumption.

These DL series engines—DL- 20, DL-26, DL-28, and DL-32—are a medium-speed type (600-1,000 rpm) with outputs covering the range from 750 to 3,000 bhp. They are suitable for both main propulsion and auxiliary generating applications.

Severe tests and experiments under various conditions on all parts of these engines were carried out at the Daihatsu laboratory and factory before they were placed on the market. The company's traditional design concepts—simple and sturdy construction, easy maintenance, and lower maintenance costs—are fully incorporated in the DL series engines.

Since the DL series was placed on the market, Daihatsu reports an increasing number of orders from many overseas shipowners.

DETROIT DIESEL Circle 73 on Reader Service Card The Detroit Diesel Allison divi- sion of General Motors offers advanced fuel economy models of its 149 Series diesel engines. The turbocharged and intercooled engines are said to be the most fuel-efficient heavy-duty diesels available in their power range.

The Detroit 149 engines in 12- and 16-cylinder, V configurations are expected to show fuel economy improvements of about 3.5 percent over previous engines at the same horsepower ratings. The 12-cylinder models are available up to 894 bhp, and the 16-cylinder versions up to 1,212 bhp. The fuel economy improvements are the result of a number of engineering developments, including new turbochargers, unit fuel injectors, and a new airflow system.

With the new system, the power required to drive the Roots type blowers used in Detroit two-stroke cycle engines is reduced significantly as the engine reaches operating speeds. As that happens, the increased airflow from the turbochargers takes over the function of providing the intake air needed to maintain combustion and scavenging in the cylinders. A special valve takes the load off the blower by equalizing the pressure on both sides of the rotors, reducing blower horsepower. The new turbochargers and unit fuel injectors have been carefully tailored to match the needs of the new system for optimum fuel efficiency.

Detroit Diesel 149 Series engines have been popular with the commercial fishing industry for many years.

ELECTRO-MOTIVE Circle 19 on Reader Service Card Rating increases of 10 percent, resulting from technological improvements, have been announced by the Electro-Motive Division of General Motors. The leading supplier of diesel engines to the domestic marine market says the 645FB engine provides a five percent improvement in fuel efficiency over its 645EB series of engines.

"EMD engines have been a favorite of the marine industry since they were first introduced in 1937.

Their high reliability, ease of maintenance, and the continuing improvements in fuel efficiency have made them the standard of the industry," said G.C. Mulick, EMD manager power products.

The product advances incorporated into the 645 series enables EMD to offer ratings for propulsion engines ranging from 1,050 bhp at 900 rpm for the Roots blower engine model 8-645E6 to 4,000 bhp at 900 rpm for the turbocharged model 20-645F7B engine.

In the EMD marine generator sets, power output ranges from 570 kw, 50 Hz at 750 rpm in the Roots blower engine model 8-645E6 to 2,865 kw, 60 Hz at 900 rpm for the turbocharged 20-645F7B engine.

Electro-Motive is currently in the midst of a 10-year, $1.3-billion product and facilities improvement program. This program has seen the completion of EMD's blended fuels facility; it will see the addition of 63 computercontrolled machines to accompany the more than 150 already in place. The planned investment also includes the addition of robotics for such applications as material handling, arc welding, and deburring.

GARDNER Circle 20 on Reader Service Card British diesel engine manufacturer L. Gardner and Sons Ltd., represented in the U.S. by Waller Marine of Houston, is now concentrating on the North American marine market with the company's line of naturally aspirated and turbocharged diesels that have a worldwide reputation for fuel economy, reliability, and durability.

The Gardner engine line ranges from the 6LMB, a naturally aspirated model producing 127 bhp, to the 8LXCT, an in-line, turbocharged 8-cylinder engine with output of 200 bhp. The four engine models in this power range are lightweight with aluminum alloy crankcases, with flywheel housing to suit a Twin Disc 509 reduction gear. Specific fuel consumption is in the order of 0.326 pounds per bhp hour.

Gardner also maintains production of the naturally aspirated 8L3B marine diesel, a heavy-duty 8-cylinder engine producing 250 bhp at 1,250 rpm. This engine is of robust design, highly suited for the fish trawling industry.

GENERAL ELECTRIC Circle 2 1 on Reader Service Card GE's fuel-efficient, four-stroke 7FDM marine diesel engines now offer ratings from 1,525 to 4,000 bhp. The 8-cylinder model is rated 1,525 bhp at 900 rpm and 1,800 bhp at 1,050 rpm. The 7FDM 12-cylinder engines are rated at 2,550 bhp and 3,000 bhp at 900 and 1,050 rpm, respectively, while 16-cylinder engines carry ratings of 3,400 bhp at 900 rpm and 4,000 bhp at 1,050 rpm.

To help reduce fuel costs, GE's Blended Fuel Testing Program is presently burning a blend of 50 percent #6 fuel with 50 percent #2 fuel in its new Engine Endurance Laboratory in Erie, Pa. ft is expected that testing of this 50/50 blend on board an operating vessel will begin later this year.

General Electric's recently introduced three-ring piston design significantly reduced lube oil consumption during field tests. This GE design, using two compression rings and one oil control ring, also reduces ring wear for longer life between overhauls.

The development of GE turbochargers that operate more effectively in marine service has greatly improved acceleration characteristics and can further improve fuel efficiency. The projected life of connection rod bearings and their crankshaft journals has been increased with the development of a grooveless upper rod bearing half, while welded-in, stainless steel 30-degree value seats improve cylinder head life.

GE's 7FDM marine diesel engines are supported by an extensive parts and service network that engine users can access simply by calling the GE Actionline number—(800) 325-9668. The GE "48 Hours or Free" policy promises that parts needed for all emergency repairs will be delivered to the customer's shoreside location within 48 hours or there will be no charge for the parts or their transportation.

GEORGE ENGINE Circle 4 4 on Reader Service Card George Engine is offering a sixpage full-color brochure describing its range of services for diesel engines including custom power packages for marine and offshore applications. The company has been known as an innovator in the power application industry since 1945 providing its broad range of services from locations in Harvey, Baton Rouge, Lafayette, and Morgan City, La.

As much as an 11.5-percent reduction in fuel consumption can be realized by George Engine Company's "bypass operation"—the upgrading of a Detroit Diesel 149 series engine from its normally aspired (NA) configuration to a turbocharged, intercooled, blower-bypass (TIB) configuration using the latest high-tech components from Detroit Diesel. Fuel savings provide a rapid payback of the cost of conversion.

The blower-bypass is a simple butterfly valve arrangement that automatically diverts the incoming combustion air around the Roots blower when turbocharger boost has reached a sufficient level.

With the Roots blower bypassed, it no longer imposes an accessory load on the engine; the horsepower that was previously required is now available at the flywheel to do useful work.

With a smaller fuel injector, the TIB configuration produces the same horsepower at the same rpm as the NA arrangement, but does it with significantly less fuel. Alternatively, the owner may elect to use larger injectors to achieve greater horsepower output, but still at a competitively low specific fuel consumption figure.

GMT Circle 22 on Reader Service Card As a result of more and more interest in the 4-stroke diesel engines, Grandi Motori Trieste (GMT) of Italy is now allocating more of its resources to the development of its already well established range of high- and medium-speed 4-stroke engines for marine, industrial, and other applications. GMT is represented in the U.S. by GMT of America Corporation, Morristown, N.J.

The benefits of this policy are now showing in the newly introduced range of 4-stroke engines, some already in service and others about to be introduced. These offer the steadily gained advantages of higher specific outputs and lower specific fuel consumption with reduced dimensions and weight.

The extent and pace of development of GMT 4-stroke engines is indicated by the following programs: In March this year the first long-stroke version of the 550 Series of engines (550-mm bore, 630- mm stroke) began a series of intensive tests from which is expected an output of 1,600 bhp per cylinder at 450 rpm, and a fuel consumption of 124 grams per bhp hour.

In September 1984 the first A 420 H (420-mm bore, 480-mm stroke) 12-cylinder engine, developing 800 bhp per cylinder at 600 rpm, will start a series of tests expected to produce a fuel consumption of 136 grams per bhp hour.

In December 1984 running will commence on the 6-cylinder 320 engine (320 x 360 mm), the latest generation of the well-proven 300 Series of Fiat/GMT engines, of which many hundreds of units are in service for marine and industrial applications worldwide. The latest engine has been designed for an output of 500 bhp per cylinder at 750 rpm with a sfc of 132 grams per bhp hour, while a naval version of the same engine will run at the higher speed of 900 rpm.

In mid-1986 a further development of the 420 Series will follow, with an output of 890 bhp per cylinder at 600 rpm, and and expected fuel consumption of 128 g/bhph.

All GMT medium-speed engines are designed to operate on heavy residual fuel up to 6,000 sec Redwood 1/100 F at very high efficiency through appropriate design of the combustion chamber, fuel pumps, intake and exhaust system, and the adoption of high-efficiency turbochargers. Dual-fuel versions are available for operation on natural gas, with ignition by means of five percent pilot fuel.

All GMT medium-speed engines are suitable for application in total energy plants for effective fuel energy utilization up to a total efficiency of 90 percent by virtue of improved design of liner and cylinder head cooling.

In addition to the medium-speed engines mentioned above, GMT supplies the well-proven diesels of its 230 Series, which cover the power range from 1,088 to 7,600 bhp, with rated service speed from 900 to 1,200 rpm.

HANSHIN Circle 23 on Reader Service Card Hanshin Diesel Works, Ltd. of Japan has developed its EL Series fuel-saving diesel, a low-speed fourstroke engine that has a proven record since 1979. Hanshin is represented in the U.S. by Matsui Corporation of Los Angeles.

Fuel consumption for the EL Se- ries has been reduced by approximately 11 percent compared with conventional diesels of this class.

A long-stroke (700-mm) design permits improved thermal efficiency in the expansion stroke.

The fuel injection characteristics have been improved by using a high-pressure injection pump. Improved and well-matched exhaust timing have enhanced supercharging efficiency.

Low-grade fuel may be used; satisfactory combustion can be obtained because of the higher injection pressure. The low engine speed brings about improvements in propeller efficiency of approximately three percent.

The 6EL35 engine has an output of 2,400 bhp at 260 rpm; the 6ELS35 produces 2,600 bhp at 260 rpm. Both models have a bore of 350 mm and stroke of 700 mm.

Specific fuel consumption is 138 grams per bhp hour.

ISOTTA FRASCHINI Circle 4 5 on Reader Service Card Isotta Fraschini S.p.A. is a company of the VM Group, the diesel engine sector of Finmeccanica of Italy. Isotta has been designing and building engines continuously since 1909. It is headquartered in Saronna, about 15 miles from Milan, with a second major facility located in Bari on the Adriatic Sea.

Isotta designs and manufactures a broad range of diesel engines for diverse applications. The ID 32 engine series for marine propulsion has a power output range from 180 to 400 bhp at 2,700-3,000 rpm. The ID 38 series when used for marine propulsion is rated from 180 to 400 bhp at 2,700-2,900 rpm for workboat use, 500 bhp at 3,000 rpm in military applications. The ID 36 engine type is rated 300- 1,320 bhp at 1,650-1,800 rpm for workboats, and up to 1,600 bhp at 1,900 rpm for military craft.

The ID 36 diesel engines are available in V-form models with six, eight, 12, and 16 cylinders; a 10-cylinder version is presently under development. All production engines in this series are available in amagnetic versions. Isotta also manufactures, under license, the Paxman Diesel model PV2000 engine, which has a power range of 1,000-4,500 bhp at 1,600 rpm.

The ID 36 SS6 V-AM amagnetic engine is being supplied to the U.S. Navy for its mine countermeasure ship program. This engine has a continuous power rating of 660 bhp at 1,800 rpm for ambient temperature of 78 F; when derated for 100 F, output is 620 bhp at 1,800 rpm. Parallel operation of two ID 36 SS6 V-AM engines into a common gearbox provides a continuous output power of 1,320 bhp at 78 F ambient.

Cost of ownership/life cycle costs for the ID 36 SS6 V-AM engine is reduced through high reliability and time between overhaul, and low maintainability. Because the engine's magnetic signature is permanent, it never needs to be removed from the ship for periodic degaussing. ID 36 series engines have demonstrated mean time between overhaul in excess of 14,000 hours per engine on 134 units operating more than 1.9 million hours. The manufacturer reports, through use of Reliability Centered Maintenance, the need for periodic overhauls is non-existant, thus making MTBO in excess of 20,000 hours.

Users of ID 36 type diesel engines for marine applications have included: the Italian, Iraqi, and Thai Navies; hovercrafts in Finland; Italian fishing vessels; passenger ferries in Italy, France, and Thailand; and, when the first MCM ship enters service, the United States Navy.

JOHNSON & TOWERS Circle 24 on Reader Service Card One of the most extensive single- source selections of marine diesel power—15 to 4,000 bhp—for all manner of workboats and com- mercial fishing vessels, a wide choice of marine gears to suit most any requirement, and the renowned J & T parts and service backup are available from Johnson & Towers of Mt. Laurel, N.J., marine diesel specialists established in 1926.

This prestigious firm, known for its innovative engineering in marine diesel power, is a distributor of Isuzu diesel engines 15-150 bhp; the full range of Detroit Diesel engines from the 4—53 and 8.2-liter natural up the 1,000-bhp 12V-92TI and 1,600-bhp 16V-149TI; and the full line of Alco diesels up to 4,000 bhp.

J & T was recently appointed a distributor to the high-quality, lightweight, aluminum-cased ZF marine gear from West Germany.

In addition, the firm offers Allison, Twin Disc, Capitol, Borg Warner, and Niigata gears.

With facilities in Mount Laurel and Wildwood, N.J., and Baltimore, Cambridge, and Beltsville, Md., J & T stocks new and rebuilt engines and gears, maintains a huge inventory of parts, and has a large staff of factory-trained mechanics noted for prompt expert service at J & T or in the field.

KHD-DEUTZ Circle 25 on Reader Service Card A research and development project titled The Ship of the Future, sponsored by the Federal German Minister for Research and Technology, is intended to improve the West German shipbuilding industry's chances in the face of international competition. Individual parts of this broad endeavor have been awarded to the shipyard's suppliers.

KHD-Deutz has been selected to carry out an R&D project on the optimization of the combustion process in medium-speed, fourstroke diesel engines. The development goals are: reduce fuel consumption, equip engine to burn cheap heavy fuel oil of ever poorer quality.

The results achieved on the onecylinder BV1M 540 experimental engine have also been verified by using BV6M 540 and BV8M 540 engines with different turbocharging systems. At one point chosen for comparison at which the BVM 540 engines were producing relatively good operating results, it was possible to reduce specific fuel consumption further on the BV1M by making the following modifications: raising injection pressure by 90 percent; reducing the duration of injection by 30 percent; using optimized injection nozzles; raising firing pressure by 10 percent; and increasing the amount of excess air present during combustion by seven percent.

When certain development steps were applied to the two multicylinder engines, most of the results were verified. Thus, the development work done as part of the Ship of the Future research project comprises an important step towards maintaining the competitiveness of the medium-speed, 4-stroke diesel engine.

KRUPP MAK Circle 26 on Reader Service Card Fuel consumption in marine engines has been effectively reduced without affecting performance.

Shipowners using Krupp MaK engines can save up to $160,000 at present world prices in fuel costs annually. Fuel consumption is reduced 10 percent in the most powerful MaK engine, the M 601 with a cylinder output of 1,000 kw (1,341 bhp). This calculation was based on 300 sea or operational days, using the engines at 85 percent of mcr and burning residual oil with a viscosity of at least 380 cSt/50 C or more.

The assessment of the economic viability of a diesel engine for ship propulsion is currently measured by the most important parameter, the specific fuel consumption, followed by reliability and an ability to handle heavy fuel oil. According to this, for a number of years every effort has been made to reduce consumption so as to make the profitability of a ship's propulsion unit independent of other fac- tors, such as propeller and ship design and the layout of auxiliary engines, and to improve the utilization of waste heat as much as possible.

For years Krupp MaK has been involved in these developments. In September 1982 a prototype engine of the M 601 type was unveiled to the maritime industry.

For the first time in Europe this eight-cylinder achieved a specific fuel consumption of 126 grams per bhp hour.

This development was made possible by an increase in the turbocharger's efficiency. In this way, considerable reductions in gas exchange loss in a four-stroke engine could be achieved. Furthermore, improvements to injection techniques were being installed, and an increase in the combustion pressure was brought about.

In the course of a few years it has been possible to reduce specific fuel consumption of marine diesel engines by 35 g/bhph. This development has not yet reached the end of the line.

Fuel consumption varies according to piston measurements because of variable losses in the cooling system and friction among the various parts. Larger engines have a greater mechanical efficiency and lower cooling loss. Overall they are more economical than smaller engines. This fact is equally true for two- and four-stroke engines.

M.A.N.-B&W Circle 27 on Reader Service Card In the fall of 1981, M.A.N.-B&W decided to design and develop a medium-speed diesel engine with a 580-mm bore and 640-mm stroke, with an output of 1,650 bhp per cylinder. The decision was prompted by the following considerations: almost one-half of the main engine horsepower on order in 1981 was for engine outputs between 8,000 and 15,000 bhp; and the high overall economy of a fourstroke, medium-speed propulsion system.

When the go-ahead was given for development, M.A.N.-B&W was sure, and is even more strongly convinced today that, in terms of overall economy, its new L58/64 engine will outperform other fourstroke and two-stroke diesels with a similar large bore and comparable cylinder output.

The new four-stroke, heavy-fuel L58/64 engine will be produced as in-line units with six, seven, eight, and nine cylinders, providing a power range (mcr) from 9,900 to 14,850 bhp.

The L58/64 is a logical up-grading of M.A.N, medium-speed engines that have rendered excellent service in operation on heavy fuel for almost 20 years. This early understanding of heavy fuel burning characteristics was further extended by the 40/45 engine type, which in the 1970s introduced a modern concept with high firing pressure, the basis for low fuel consumption.

During the development of the L58/64 engine, particular emphasis was placed on the following: low fuel consumption; high reliability in unrestricted operation; simple and easy maintenance; and adaptability to varying operating and environmental conditions as well as fuel ignition qualities.

During the test-bed operation of the 3-cylinder 3L58/64 experimental engine, the low fuel consumption rate of 125 grams per bhp hour measured after the first 100 hours of operation is particularly noteworthy, as at that time combustion had not been fully optimized.

It should be borne in mind that the mechanical efficiency of a 3-cylinder engine is comparatively low. The turbocharger, which is smaller than that of production engines, negatively influences the fuel consumption rate as well.

Considering these factors, the low fuel consumption rates aimed at for production 58/64 engines operating at different loads, including 123 grams per bhp hour at 85 percent of the fuel optimized (ecr) rating, should be reached and probably even lowered. M.A.N, estimates that the sfc of the 9-cylinder 9L58/ 64 engine will be 121 g/bhph.

The 3-cylinder test engine was operated from the very beginning on fuel with a viscosity of 7,000 sec Redwood 1/100 F.

In addition to high operating efficiency, the 58/64 engines will provide excellent waste heat recovery opportunities. Exhaust gas temperature downstream of the turbocharger will be 660 F over a broad operating range. In a number of applications, this means that the at-sea electrical load can be produced by the waste heat recovery system instead of an auxiliary generator, resulting in additional fuel savings.

For a free 8-page color brochure on the new L58/64 engine series, circle the Reader Service Card number listed above.

M.A.N.-B&W HOLEBY Circle 2 8 on Reader Service Card M.A.N.-B&W Holeby in Denmark manufactures heavy fuel oil marine generator sets with outputs from 500 to 4,000 kw per unit at 720-750 rpm. As a member of the M.A.N.-B&W group of companies, Holeby's gensets are based upon 80 years of experience in diesel engine design, 70 years of experience in marine genset design, and 45 years of experience in genset operation on heavy fuel oil.

Holeby has extensive experience and continuing research and development in the diesel field. It manufactures four-stroke engines with power outputs from 450 to 5,500 bhp.

In addition to diesel engines, Holeby production includes spare parts and components such as crankshafts and connecting rods for the manufacture of M.A.N.- B&W diesels by licensees. It also manufactures fuel oil mixing units and other auxiliary equipment.

As a result of recent development projects, all types of Holeby engines can now be supplied in uprated four-valve versions that operate efficiently on the same heavy fuel oil used in the main propulsion engines. Holeby has termed this its Uni-Fuel Concept, which features simplified fuel oil system, simplified and cheaper bunkering, and the ability to operate on fuels up to 7,000 sec Redwood 1 at 100 F.

MIRRLEES BLACKSTONE Circle 29 on Reader Service Card Mirrlees Blackstone, the British diesel engine manufacturer that is a wholly owned subsidiary of the Hawker Siddeley Group, has just entered the U.S. market with the construction of a spare parts, service, and sales facility in Houston.

The facility will be fully stocked with a spares inventory to serve the ever-growing marine and industrial Mirrlees applications in the U.S.

The Mirrlees range of diesels are manufactured in two plants in the U.K.—at Stockton, where in 1897 Mirrlees built the first British diesel engine (only the third in the world); and at Stamford, where the original Blackstone Company was established in 1837.

The range of advanced-technology engines produced in these factories covers horsepowers from 180 to 11,680 bhp. The E and ESL MK2 series cover bhp outputs from 180 to 2,500 at crankshaft speeds up to 1,000 rpm. The turbocharged and intercooled ESL MK2 can burn residual fuels up to 1,500 sec Redwood 1. The MB 190 model is a high-reliability engine built in 6- to 16-cylinder form, with power outputs of 850 to 2,864 bhp at 1,500 rpm.

The medium-horsepower range offered by Mirrlees is covered by the MB 275, a heavy-fuel diesel built in 6- to 16-cylinder configuration with power outputs of 1,600 to 6,166 bhp at speeds up to 1,000 rpm. This engine was designed for low specific fuel consumption with heavy fuel burning capability.

The medium-speed Mirrlees K Major MK2 and MK3 cover the top horsepower range, with the MK 2 of 381-mm bore producing up to 9,600 bhp, and the MK3 of 400-mm bore producing up to 11,680 bhp. Both models, offered in a range from six to 16 cylinders, are designed to burn heavy fuel at speeds up to 600 rpm.

MTU Circle 30 on Reader Service Card MTU of North America, Inc., Greenwich, Conn., is the U.S.-based subsidiary of MTU-Friedrichshafen of West Germany. The German parent company is jointly owned by Daimler-Benz AG and M.A.N. AG. This year MTU-Friedrichshafen celebrates its 75th anniversary of high-performance diesel engine development and manufacturing.

Further adding to MTU's worldwide service network, MTU of North America has appointed two product support dealers for engine repairs and overhaul and personnel training. One of these dealers is The Boat Yard in Seattle, the other is Marine Diesel Service of Coral Gables, Fla.

The MTU diesel line covers a power output range of 440 to 10,000 bhp at rated speed between 1,000 and 2,400 rpm. Basic design features common to the series are: Vconfiguration, water cooling, exhaust gas turbocharging, and charge air cooling. All engines are the result of the collective experience gained by Maybach, Mercedes- Benz, and M.A.N, in the development of cost-effective, high-performance diesels.

The model 20V 1163 TB 93 engine, introduced in 1983, is evidence of MTU's continued success in its engine development program, which focuses on increasing engine power and power concentration to open new powering possibilities, reducing fuel consumption throughout the entire speed range, extending operating range through higher mean effective pressures, and improving partialload performance characteristics.

MTU employes cylinder cutouts, cylinder charge transfer, and sequential turbocharging in some of its engines.

Power in the 1163 series has been increased from 349 to 496 bhp per cylinder, corresponding to an increase in mep from 305 to 426 psi. MTU's two-stage turbocharging is also employed in addition to the other systems mentioned.

This allows overall engine dimensions to be kept almost constant, and results in a power-tovolume ratio of 11.7 bhp per cubic foot, and a weight-to-power ratio of 4.4 pounds per bhp with the 20V 1163 producing 9,920 bhp.

Output of the 396 series engines has also been increased. With a maximum rating of 2,570 bhp and a weight of 10,475 pounds, the 16V 396 penetrates a power range that could previously be served only by larger and heavier engines.

MTU's marine diesels are designed for a wide range of commercial and naval applications.

These include continuous duty with a power range of 590 to 4,930 bhp, and medium duty with a power range of 640 to 5,425 bhp.

Light-duty engines have a power range of up to 10,000 bhp. Some of the advantages of MTU's compact engines include light weight, low volume, and decreased noise levels.

In addition, they are prepackaged with accessories for fast, inexpensive installation of the complete power plant.

Electronic monitoring and control systems for diesel engines, gas turbines, marine transmissions, and combined propulsion systems complement the MTU product line.

MTU electronics include monitor and control systems for unattended propulsion plants. Engine room control stands, bridge control posts, and control consoles are also available, as well as simulation systems for personnel training.

MWM-MURPHY Circle 3 1 on Reader Service Card MWM-Murphy, based in Milwaukee, is the U.S. subsidiary of Motoren-Werke Mannheim (MWM) of Mannheim, West Germany.

MWM has more than a cen- tury of diesel engine experience, with manufacturing facilities in Mannheim and Munich, West Germany; Madrid and Zafra, Spain; Sao Paulo, Brazil; and Milwaukee.

MWM's TBD603/604 series is comprised of four turbocharged/intercooled engines—an in-line six (TBD604L6), a V8 (TBD604V8), a V12 (TBD603V12), and a V16 (TBD603V16). The series has a common bore and stroke of 6.29 by 7.28 inches, respectively, and a displacement of 3.72 liters per cylinder.

Modifications to the turbocharging and fuel injection systems have combined to reduce fuel consumption and increase performance of the series. The maximum horsepower range of the TBD603/604 has been extended (with the V16) to 2,000 bhp at 1,800 rpm for rescue vessel and pleasure craft operation.

Workboat application outputs have remained the same, however, with the maximum continuous rating remaining at 102 bhp per cylinder at 1,650 rpm.

Fuel consumption has been reduced up to five percent, now reaching as low as 0.310 pounds per bhp hours. For speeds up to 1,500 rpm, these engines may be operated with marine diesel fuel per BS 2869 Class B2.

MWM large-bore engines are now available from Stewart & Stevenson Services, Inc. of Houston for applications requiring from 270 to 8,800 bhp. Series 440, 441, 444, 501, and 510 are offered as in-line and V-form models. Featuring a fuel consumption rate as low as 0.313 pounds per bhp hour at 750 rpm, these engines effectively use #2 diesel fuel or heavy fuel up to 5,000 sec Redwood 1 at 100 F (CIMAC 10).

The MWM 400 series is a fourstroke, direct-injection engine family available in diesel, natural gas, dual-fuel, intermediate, and heavy-fuel versions. The 400 is divided into three basic model classifications— the 440, 441, and the newer 444. The 440 and 441 are designed around a common bore and stroke (9.06 x 10.6). To maximize parts interchangeability, the 444 shares the same bore as the other family members; however, the stroke has been extended to 12.6 inches.

The 440 and 441 are offered in both naturally aspirated and turbocharged/ intercooled models. The 440 denotes the in-line engines, available in six and eight cylinders, and the 441 designates the V-type engines offered in 12- and 16-cylinder models. Operating range is between 600 and 1,000 rpm on diesel fuel and 750-1,000 rpm on alternative fuels. Outputs vary based upon the type of fuel used.

The longer-stroke 444 is available in in-line six- and eight-cylinder models and has an operating speed up to 750 rpm. This model is designed for optimized performance on lower grades and heavy fuels up to 3,500 sec Redwood 1.

The 500 series, largest of the MWM product line, is divided into two separate engine families, the 510B and the 501. The 510 series represent the latest state-of-theart in multi-fuel and heavy-fuel engines. The 510B is comprised of four basic turbocharged/intercooled with a common 13-inch bore and 14.2-inch stroke—two in-line (six and eight cylinders) and two V-form (12 and 16 cylinders). Like the 400 series, the 510B has been designed to operate on a variety of fuels, with significant experience on the poorer grades, even fuels with viscosity up to 5,000 sec Redwood 1. Design characteristics of this family allow operating speeds between 600 and 750 rpm.

The 501 series is available as a turbocharged/intercooled, in-line six- and eight-cylinder engine only.

Each shares a bore of 14.2 inches and stroke of 17.7 inches; operating speed is from 428 to 514 rpm.

The 501 has been designed specifically for operation on diesel and poorer grade fuels; operation on natural gas and dual-fuel is not available. Output at 514 rpm for the six-cylinder model is 2,475 bhp, 3,300 bhp for the eight-cylinder unit.

PENSKE G M POWER Circle 46 on Reader Service Card Penske GM Power, Inc. represents Detroit Diesel Allison and Electro-Motive Division products that have survived the test of time and consistently provided the kind of value and dependability that produces results. The company is authorized to carry all Detroit Diesel engines and also offfers the EMD 645 Series.

The Penske-engineered Detroit Diesel 8V92TI, a high-performance marine power package, is a compact, heavy-duty engine with a horsepower-to-weight ratio of 6.4 pounds per shp, establishing a new standard for the industry.

The 8V 92TI marine propulsion engine was developed using only field-proven components and thoroughly tested by Penske's own dynamometer.

Today's Detroit Diesel and EMD engines incorporate the latest stateof- the-art design modifications, such as low smoke injectors, bypass blowers, high-output turbochargers, aftercoolers, and refined engine timing. More importantly, these features are incorporated into the reliable and affordable engine design that has gained worldwide recognition and offers unsurpassed application and standardization potential.

Penske field engineers are ready to survey equipment for refurbishment or replacement, train operators and technicians, and establish comprehensive preventive maintenance programs to guarantee optimum reliability and equipment life.

PERKINS Circle 34 on Reader Service Card Perkins Engines, Inc. of Wayne, Mich., a leading supplier in North America of light and medium diesels in the 30-350 bhp range, has increased its ability to serve the marine and shipping industry by expanding into the heavy-duty marine diesel market. In March this year Perkins acquired Rolls- Royce Diesel Division, thereby extending its range up to 1,200 bhp.

The combined Perkins/Rolls- Royce diesel line is used in a wide variety of marine industry equipment, including workboats, ships, dockside vehicles, and generator sets. In addition to the acquisition of Rolls-Royce, Perkins added a small line of 3.5- and 5-bhp diesels, including a compact 3-kw portable generator suitable for marine applications.

Three series of Rolls-Royce engines— the CV, D, and C ranges— are suited for marine and generator set applications. These engines include six-, eight-, and 12-cylinder diesels providing from 145 to 1,200 bhp.

The CV range comprises 90-degree V8 and 60-degree V12 engines, and is the most recent family of diesels developed by Rolls- Royce. They offer ratings of 550 and 950 bhp. Both engines are direct line injection, and feature turbocharging and charge cooling.

The D range is a 90-degree, V8 direct injection engine with 32.7- liter capacity. This engine features turbocharging, charge cooling, and has a power output of up to 980 bhp.

The C range includes six- and eight-cylinder engines of 12.2 and 16.2 liters capacity, respectively.

Their output is from 145 to 400 bhp.

The top of the line of the Perkins marine diesels is a turbocharged, eight-cylinder engine—the TV8.540—that offers 350 bhp at 2,800 rpm. This engine weighs less than 1,700 pounds, and offers an outstanding power-to-weight ratio.

Foremost in the Perkins marine line is the Range 4 family of four high-performance, six-cylinder models. The model 240 provides 240 bhp in a six-cylinder engine.

Perkins supports its diesels with a worldwide network of 4,000 distributors, dealers, and parts outlets.

The company also offers a variety of maintenance programs, including engine rebuilding and failure analysis courses.

SACM Circle 35 on Reader Service Card SACM of France manufactures medium- and high-speed, fourstroke, direct-injection diesel engines in a range from 200 to 10,000 bhp. The company is a leader in the development of high-performance engines utilizing the RVR (reduced volumetric ratio) and Hyperbar turbocharging techniques, and in non-magnetic engine versions up to 2,880 bhp. SACM highperformance engines are widely used in Naval and commercial applications requiring compact size, light weight, and high specific power.

SACM's U.S. agent is the F.W.

Donnelly Company of Houston.

It is SACM's philosophy to further the development of the performance qualities of its engine range without sacrificing the essential operational qualities, including low specific fuel consumption and ease of operation/ maintenance. This development philosophy has resulted in the company's now well-known RVR turbocharging technique, which provides significantly more power than conventional high-performance engines while maintaining or slightly reducing the engine's thermal and mechanical stresses.

Additional attractive features of the RVR engines include the wide ambient temperature range in which they may operate without power derating, the simple, singlecircuit cooling system, and the elimination of condensed water formation in the air intercooler.

The Hyperbar engine features a further reduction of the RVR engine's volumetric ratio (7 to 9), while utilizing a higher pressure ratio turbocharger, additional combustion chamber, and regulation equipment. The resulting engine has a substantial increase in power beyond the RVR engine, and has the unique ability to maintain high constant torque at any speed. The Hyperbar engine's favorable power-to-weight ratio and wide-ranging torque possibilities make the engine ideal for highspeed craft.

SACM also remains active in development of its high-performance engine range as non-magnetic units for military applications.

These engines utilize a maximum of non-magnetic materials for parts that are less highly stressed, while retaining magnetic materials for the more highly stressed parts that cannot be of non-magnetic material without sacrificing reliability.

STORK-WERKSPOOR Circle 36 on Reader Service Card Stork Werkspoor Diesel B.V., known as SWDiesel, with headquarters in Amsterdam, is the leading diesel engine manufacturer in the Netherlands, with a production program covering an output range from 300 to 16,200 kw (400 to 21,725 bhp). This program consists of five models of four-stroke, medium-speed, heavyduty engines, all capable of operating on heavy fuel.

The recently introduced SW280 engine type, fully adapted to the demands of the present and future market, is offered in six-, eight-, and nine-cylinder in-line configurations, and in a 12-cylinder V-form version, with outputs ranging from 1,465 to 3,530 kw (1,965-4,735 bhp). Following its introduction, the SW 280 attracted much attention from the international marine world, resulting in the receipt of a large number of orders.

Designed using the most modern computer-aided design and testbed facilities, the SW280 has proved to be both a sales and operational success. All types have been installed for main propulsion, auxiliary power, and various other applications.

Special attention in Stork's research program was given to the reduction of fuel consumption, resulting in lower figures for the SW280, F/SW240, and DR210 engines.

R&D on the well-known TM410 and TM620 engine types, of which more than 650 have been delivered, has also been successful in meeting market demands for reduced fuel consumption; a reduction in fuel consumption of up to eight percent can be achieved. On a number of 18TM410 engines, a specific fuel consumption as low as 185 grams per kw hour has been recorded under full-load conditions.

These reductions in consumption have been achieved without increasing the combustion pressure.

Further reductions are foreseen in the near future. This will be achieved by some increase in the maximum cylinder pressure.

Major improvements on these engines include the application of new high-efficiency turboblowers, and valve timing in injection systems to give higher injection pressures.

Operation on heavy fuel is one of the strongest points of SWDiesel engines. The poorest quality fuels have been tested in TM and SW engines. When installed as auxiliary engines, the SW models can use the same heavy fuel as the main engine.

Over the past few years, SWDiesel has set up offices in New Orleans, Seattle, and Washington, D.C.

in an effort to expand its sales in the U.S. market. SWDiesel Gulf Inc. (Stork-Diesel) in New Orleans is a member of the SWDiesel Group.

During the past five years, SWDiesel has booked orders for ships under American management for more than 400,000 bhp, including 10 TM410 eight-cylinder engines ordered by the Quincy Shipbuilding Division of General Dynamics for installation in the five maritime prepositioning ships (T-AKX) being built for the U.S.


SULZER Circle 37 on Reader Service Card Sulzer Brothers Limited of Winterthur, Switzerland, this year celebrating its 150th anniversary, is a world leader in diesel engine design, development, and production.

Sulzer's latest series, the RTA superlongstroke engine, has now accumulated more than 36,000 hours of at-sea service experience (as of May 1 this year), in the 45 ships already delivered, and is well under way to proving its high reliability and low specific fuel consumption.

The outstanding fuel economy of RTA engines has been fully confirmed by the considerable testbed experience gained from 3,500 running hours in long-term optimization tests with 10 engines, which have been complemented by the more than 125 successful shop trials.

As a result, the RTA diesel engine series is now able to offer even better optimum combinations of very low specific fuel consumption and low running speed that, together with the benefits derived from unique RTA design features, give: reduced brake specific fuel consumption from optimum engine tuning; better propulsive efficiency through lower engine speeds offered by the wider layout field; and closer optimization to ship requirements by increased overlap of the layout fields from the six RTA cylinder bore sizes.

The outstanding fuel economy of RTA engines can now be improved even further by incorporating the new Sulzer Efficiency Booster system.

This recovers surplus exhaust gas energy and thereby directly raises engine brake thermal efficiency, up to a remarkable 53 percent maximum in the largestbore engines, corresponding to a minimum specific fuel consump- tion of 117 grams per bhp hour for an RTA84 engine at 85-percent load, ISO-reference conditions. The exhaust energy available for conventional waste heat recovery is decreased slightly depending upon the individual rating. The overall result of the Efficiency Booster is additional fuel savings of up to 3 g/bhph.

The very latest generation of BBC high-efficiency turbochargers, type VTR-4A, has ample spare capacity for meeting the design requirements of today's RTA engines.

The Sulzer Efficiency Booster thus uses a concept devised by Brown Boveri to recover surplus exhaust gas energy and feed it directly to the engine crankshaft through an intermediate transmission.

The integral power takeoff unique to the RTA design is ideal for this concept, allowing the compact Efficiency Booster unit simply to be flange-mounted directly onto the engine.

Delivery of RTA engines with Efficiency Booster systems depends upon the availability of the new VTR-4A turbochargers and the new power turbine modules from Brown Boveri and its licensees.

Sulzer expects that the Booster will be available for RTA engines that are due for shop test- ing from January 1985 onwards.

The output range (mcr) of the RTA series runs from 3,720 bhp at 196 rpm for the 4-cylinder RTA34 to 54,000 bhp at 90 rpm for the 12- cylinder RTA84.

For a free 26-page color brochure on the RTA engine series, circle the number above on the Reader Service Card in the back of this issue.

TRANSAMERiCA DELAVAL Circle 38 on Reader Service Card Transamerica Delaval's Engine and Compressor Division in Oakland, Calif., designs and manufactures the Enterprise R and RV medium-speed diesel engines, which have proved themselves in hundreds of thousands of operating hours, powering vessels ranging from 1,000-foot Great Lakes ore carriers to offshore workboats.

The R4 series comprises 6- and 8-cylinder in-line engines and Vform engines with 12, 16, or 20 cylinders. The bore is 17 inches and the stroke 21 inches (432 x 533 mm), and the output ranges up to 677 bhp per cylinder.

The latest development in the Enterprise line of marine diesels is the R5. Operating at 514 rpm, the R5 produces 850 bhp per cylinder with a bmep of 275. Bore and stroke are the same as the R4.

Through selective redevelopment and design advances in critical engine parts, the R5 has achieved, compared with the R4, a 40-percent increase in bhp per cylinder, 40 percent more bhp per square foot of installed space, and a 3.5- percent decrease in fuel consumption.

The ability to burn heavy fuel oil reliably is paying off for a wide range of Enterprise-powered vessels.

Three 36,500-dwt bulk carriers built by Levingston Shipbuilding for the Falcon Shipping Group are each powered by twin R4-V-12 direct-reversing engines, providing a total of 15,600 bhp.

The ability to burn heavy residual fuels makes these unsubsidized vessels competitive with foreignflag bulk carriers.

Four Enterprise R4-V16 diesels power the two 33,600-dwt tankers built by Bath Iron Works for the Falcon Group. These ships are chartered to the Military Sealift Command. Their R4-V16s, each rated at 7,360 bhp, are designed to operate on various fuels including cheaper, heavier grades with viscosities up to 3,500 sec Redwood 1.

Transamerica Delaval has complemented its Enterprise diesel line by signing a licensee agreement with the Dutch engine manufacturer, Stork-Werksppor Diesel B.V. of Amsterdam. This agreement gives Transamerica the rights to the exclusive U.S. manufacture of the Enterprise/SWD TM 620 diesel. This engine, which operates at up to 430 rpm, is offered as a 9-cylinder in-line unit with an output of 16,650 bhp, and a V-configuration 12-cylinder unit rated at 22,200 bhp. ' VOLVO PENTA Circle 39 on Reader Service Card Volvo Penta of America, Rockleigh, N.J., has introduced new configurations of its six-cylinder diesel engines. The new turbocharged/ aftercooled version of the 5.48-liter six-cylinder engine is designated TAMD60C. Horsepower has been raised to 250 bhp at 2,500 rpm for the light-duty version, and 210 bhp at 2,500 for the medium-duty model. New this year is a continuous output rating of 177 bhp at 2,200 rpm.

The new Robert Bosch fuel injection pump is equipped with an aneroid smoke eliminator, and provides a specific fuel consumption of 156 grams per bhp hour at the 2,000-rpm continuous rating.

The latest configuration of Volvo's 6.73-liter, six-cylinder turbo/aftercooled engine is the TAMD70E, rated 300 bhp at 2,500 rpm. Also available is an intermediate rating of 270 bhp at 2,500 rpm, or 211 continuous bhp at 2,000 rpm. Both the TAMD60 and 70 are available with heat exchangers or in keel-cooled modes.

Higher horsepower with lower fuel consumption is the result of component redesign in the 9.6-liter TMD100C engine. A new turbocharger, in conjunction with a new injection pump and injectors, pistons, and liners, and a modified cylinder head results in 272 bhp at 2,000 rpm in the light-duty rating.

The medium- and continuousduty ratings are 258 bhp and 238 bhp, respectively, at 1,800 rpm.

Specific fuel consumption has been improved to 153 grams per bhp hour.

Volvo's largest engine, the turbocharged and aftercooled 11.9-liter TAMD121C, has had a series of modifications, that are designed to enhance its already substantial reputation for economy and longevity.

The cylinder block has been reinforced in the liner ledge area to withstand higher outputs, while the crankshaft has been nitrided to resist fatigue. New cylinder heads with improved water flow support new injectors with improved spray patterns and higher pressures.

New pistons, liners, connecting rods, and turbocharger all contribute to the 121C's light-duty rating of 408 bhp at 2,000 rpm. Mediumand continuous-duty ratings are 387 bhp at 1,900 rpm and 367 bhp at 1,800 rpm. The engine uses 159 grams of fuel per bhp hour at the continuous rating.

A wide variety of transmissions and power takeoffs make both the TMD100C and the TAMD121C ideal power sources for fishing vessles or other boats where numerous PTOs are required.

WARTSILA Circle 40 on Reader Service Card Wartsila Diesel, one of the world's leading manufacturers of medium-speed diesel engines, is part of the Finnish Wartsila Group, with more than 17,000 employees and 35 production plants in five different countries.

Wartsila Diesel is made up of the main factory in Vasa, Finland; the Trollhattan factory in Sweden; and the newest factory, Wartsila Power Singapore in Singapore. The company specializes in purpose-designed, heavy-fuel diesel engines.

The primary objective in product development is to create diesel engines with good economy and safe operation, even for the most demanding applications. As a result of these efforts, Wartsila today is a producer of two high-standard, medium-speed diesels designed and developed from the very beginning for the poorest quality fuels.

The heavy-fuel engine types are the Vasa 32 and Vasa 22HF, covering the output range of 800 to 9,060 bhp in the speed range from 720 to 1,200 rpm. The Vasa 22HF, with a bore of 220 mm and stroke of 240 mm, is manufactured as inline versions with four, six, or eight cylinders and V-form with 12 or 16 cylinders, covering the output range of 800 to 3,210 bhp at 1,000 rpm. The Vasa 32 has a bore of 320 mm and stroke of 350 mm, and covers the range of 2,010 to 9,060 bhp at 720 rpm. The inline version is built with four, six, eight, or nine cylinders, and the V-form with 12, 16, or 18 cylinders.

The main features of the Vasa engines are: starting, stopping, and running on heavy fuel over the entire load range, without any limitations; heavy fuel operation with the same safety and reliability as when operating on distillate fuel; and total economy due to built-in serviceability, low fuel and lube oil costs, and low spare parts consumption.

Long-term service experience with the Wartsila heavy fuel engines has confirmed that the engines are capable of burning the lowest fuel qualities of the future.

Today the entire Wartsila engine range can operate safely on fuel of up to 7,000 sec Redwood 1 at 100 F.

With more than 4,000 engines delivered to 45 countries, Wartsila Diesel has a great deal of experience for both main and auxiliary engines in a wide variety of applications.

From passenger ferries, icebreakers, tankers, and fishing vessels to offshore rigs and supply vessels.

One of the most interesting U.S.

installations with Wartsila engines is the semisubmersible drilling rig Henry Goodrich (MR/EN, (11/15/83), ordered by Sonat Offshore Drilling Company. This rig is capable of drilling in the most severe arctic conditions in water depths up to 10,000 feet. With four 12-cylinder Vasa 32 generating sets giving a total output of 23,400 bhp, it is one of the most powerful drilling rigs in the world. It is also one of the first rigs with the option for heavy fuel.

Wartsila Diesel is represented through its own subsidiaries and agents in 30 countries. The company's after-sales service is based on a worldwide network of trained specialists. Operators and maintenance engineers are trained onsite and at the Wartsila factories.

Since 1980, Wartsila Diesel has been represented in the U.S. by Wartsila Power Inc., with offices in New Orleans, Houston, and New York. On the U.S. West Coast, the company is represented by Southwest Marine, Inc. of San Diego.

WAUKESHA Circle 4 1 on Readefr Service Card Waukesha Engine Division of Dresser Industries, Waukesha, Wise., has produced more than 40,000 horsepower of its new AT25 diesel since signing a license agreement with Sulzer Brothers Limited of Winterthur, Switzerland, several years ago.

This production follows a multimillion- dollar capital investment in plant renovation and new machine tools to build these heavyduty, four-stroke, medium-speed diesels. They deliver from 1,140 to 4,800 bhp (metric) in in-line sixand eight-cylinder, and V-12 and V-16 cylinder configurations.

Waukesha's commitment to this product is also evident in the recently completed laboratory facilities built to accommodate the AT25. Here the engines are undergoing continued evaluation in an ongoing refinement program to increase output and maximize operating efficiency.

The AT25 is capable of operating on heavy, blended, and distillate fuels. This range is made possible through a design that incorporates oil-cooled injection nozzles, bore-cooled cylinder heads, exhaust value rotators, two-piece pistons, and turbocharger washing equipment.

A rugged yet compact engine, the AT25 is conservatively rated and offers excellent access to components for ease of service. Quickopening access covers are provided for such components as camshafts and mail bearings. A provision for fast removal of rocker arm covers facilitates valve adjustments.

Water, lube oil, and fuel transfer pumps are located on the front of the engine for easy access. For maintenance, hydraulic tensioning of main bearing cap studs, cylinder head studs, and connecting rod studs insures precise preloading and cuts assembly time.

A high degree of parts interchangeability among models assures ease of maintenance. All pistons, piston rings, connecting rods, cylinder heads, cylinder liners, injection pumps, and nozzles are completely interchangeable among all models offered. Other components such as main bearings, camshaft segments, and piping components are common to models within the in-line or vee configurations.

WICHMANN DIESEL Circle 47 on Reader Service Card Wichmann Diesel, Inc., of Kenner, La., offers a line of fuel saving low speed diesels from 1,140 to 4,220 hp, with engine speeds from 300 to 475 rpm.

Wichmann states specific fuel consumption for their line of diesels is one of the lowest in the world. Simplicity of design reduces both planned and corrective maintenance.

In addition, any necessary maintenance requires less time than with more complex propulsion systems.

All engines are two-stroke.

Models are available for reduction gear application or as a complete system directly connected to a Wichmann controllable pitch propeller.

Of in-line design, models are available in four to 10 cylinder configurations. They are loop scavanged, have no exhaust valves, require only standard instrumentation and controls. Other common features include water cooling, direct injection and turbocharging.

Spare parts are interchangeable throughout the entire Wichmann engine line providing ease of maintenance and a minimum spare parts inventory.

Free literature is available describing all Wichmann diesel engine models.

YANMAR Circle 48 on Reader Service Card Yanmar Diesel Engine Company Ltd., of Osaka, Japan recently announced the formation of Yanmar Diesel Engine (U.S.A.), Inc., headquartered in Anaheim, Calif. The new company will be responsible for Yanmar's distributor- based and OEM engine marketing operations in the United States.

According to Tadao Yamaoka, president of Yanmar's worldwide operations, "The continued sales growth and expanded product lines geared to the U.S. market required a consolidation of our marketing and business operations in America." With the establishment of Yanmar Diesel Engine (U.S.A.), the company's activities in the United States have been consolidated enabling Yanmar to provide close engineering, sales, service and parts support to their nationwide distributor-based sales and service network. The new company's corporate officers include Yoshiaki Yano, president, and Shuji Honda, executive vice president.

Yanmar is best known as one of the world's leading manufacturers of small diesel engines. With capacities from five to 3,000 hp, the company now offers over 200 series of diesels for main and auxiliary power applications.

A series of four- and six-cylinder, naturally aspirated, turbocharged, and turbocharged/aftercooled engines with a power range from 80 bhp to 175 bhp was recently introduced. There are five models in this line, which is designed for vessels of more than 40 feet. The company has also introduced new 44-bhp and 55-bhp engines, the JHE series. The 12-cylinder 12T26 series engines have a power output range of 2,600 to 3,000 hp at 700 rpm.

Yanmar's line of marine auxiliaries are designed to save space in the engine room, while providing fuel-efficient auxiliary power. The company now has designed its own series of quiet, smooth-running diesel generator sets. Power generating capacities for Yanmar auxiliaries range from 2.4 kw to 2,000 kw.

Full color, illustrated brochures, including model details in tabular form, are available on Yanmar's full range of main and auxiliary marine diesel engines.

Maritime Reporter Magazine, page 18,  Jul 1984

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Maritime Reporter

First published in 1881 Maritime Reporter is the world's largest audited circulation publication serving the global maritime industry.