This feature is a roundup of some of the most notable oceangoing ships of 1987. The editorial staff of MR/EN has selected these vessels for their outstanding design features, excellent fuel efficiency, noteworthy performance and versatile service characteristics.

Besides entries from the commercial sector, this year's feature also incorporates some special Navy ship designs.

A M E R I C A N A H y u n d a i In November, Hyundai Heavy Industries' Ulsan Shipyard in Korea delivered the new concept container/ passenger (CONPASS) carrier Americana to her owner A/S Ivarans Rederie of Norway. The vessel has a container capacity of 1,120 TEUs and passenger capacity of 110.

This CONPASS carrier is virtually a new concept in the present market, and A/S Ivarans Rederie, a cross trader on the Atlantic, is conducting what many believe to be a novel experiment with the introduction of the vessel onto its North American East Coast-South American East Coast service.

Powered by a direct-coupled, slow-speed, two-stroke Hyundai- B&W 7S60MC diesel developing 14,280 bhp, the 580-foot-long vessel has a service speed of 18.2 knots.

She has a breadth of 85 feet and a design draft of 29 feet.

The Americana is " d o u b le skinned" with her cargo space divided into six individual holds by transverse bulkheads. Additionally, she has three vegetable oil tanks, as well as three deep fuel oil tanks.

For efficient cargo handling, the Americana has two sets of 36-toncapacity, electrohydraulic Tsuji deck cranes on fixed foundation columns on her upper deck.

For her passengers, the Americana features first class, accommodations with 62 double and single cabins.

She is equipped with a lounge/ bar, dining saloon, library, swimming pool, whirlpool, deck bar, health club, shop and hair salon.

Since Hyundai used the latest design and construction techniques in building the Americana, both passenger and crew accomodation areas are quiet and vibration free.

A N D R E W J. H I G G I NS A v o n d a l e The U.S. Navy fleet oiler Andrew J. Higgins (T-A0-I90), the fourth in a series of six vessels of this type, was delivered in the late third quarter of this year by Avondale Industries, Inc.'s Shipyards Division, New Orleans, La.

Built with the use of modern modular construction techniques, the Andrew J. Higgins is 667 V2 feet long with a beam of 97 Vi feet and maximum draft of 36 feet. Her main propulsion consists of two 10-cylinder PC4.2 Colt-Pielstick diesel engines manufactured by the Fairbanks Morse Engine Division of Colt Industries Inc. These are the first diesel propulsion engines for this class vessel built in the U.S.

The engines are capable of burning heavy fuels of up to 3,500 sec Redwood at 100° F. The fuel rate guarantee is 136 grams/metric horsepower hour. The twin-screw design provides the T-AOs with improved directional stability, ease of control and mission reliability. The oiler is capable of speeds of 20 knots. The ship's engines reportedly represent the largest marine diesels currently being manufactured in the U.S.

The mission of the Andrew J.

Higgins and other ships of the TAO- 184 Class is to transport bulk products and fuel from shore depots to combatants and support forces underway. The ships also deliver limited fleet freight, cargo, water, mail and personnel. The new ship has a cargo capacity of 183,500 barrels of oil in 18 cargo tanks and is capable of simultaneously receiving, storing and discharging two separate grades of cargo fuel. All cargo valve and pump operations and the ship's segregated ballast system are manipulated from the cargo control center located in the ship's aft superstructure, which has an overview of the entire underway replenishment deck. Cargo underway replenishment is accomplished using transfer rigs with transfer hoses suspended by a span wire automatically maintained in a constant-tension range. T-AO Class vessels are also capable of refueling helicopters from a vertical replenishment facility aft of the accommodation house.

A T L A N T I C A M E R I C AN M c D e r m o t t The 7,787-dwt split-hull hopper dredge Atlantic American was delivered during the fall of this year by McDermott Shipyard, New Orleans, La., to the American Dredging Company by Camden, N.J.

The trailing dredge, with a hopper capacity of 4,000 cubic yards, will be used to deepen, maintain, and improve waterways. The 294- foot, self-propelled, diesel-electric dredge will accommodate a crew of 21 and have an American Bureau of Shipping Maltese Cross A-l Ocean Service classification—unattended automated engine room. The vessel, which has a molded breadth of 54 feet and a depth of 22 feet, can Vasa 12V22HF, each with a capacity of 1,770 kw.

When designing the engines, the main dimensions and the hull form, special attention was given to the total fuel consumption. The new vessel uses the same amount of fuel during a tour (Oslo-Kiel-Oslo) as the old Kronprins Harald, even though the gross tonnage is about 50 percent higher.

The passenger areas of the new ferry comprise 468 cabins with a total of 1,440 berths. Special attention was given to the sound insulation of the cabins. The vessel has a trailer deck, a cargo room for trailers, and a private car deck above the trailer deck. The maximum number of trailers she can hold is 54, while her No. 4 deck can hold 283 cars.

M A R I N E RELIANCE S u m i t o mo In late June of this year, Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd.'s Oppama Shipyard delivered what reportedly was the first U.S.-flag Pure Car Carrier (PCC), the Marine Reliance, to a U.S. shipping company, Marine Transport Lines, Inc.

Powered by a Sumitomo-Sulzer 7RTA52 diesel engine with a maximum continuous rating of 11,700 bhp at 122 rpm, the Marine Reliance is designed to carry over 4,000 automobiles.

With a gross tonnage of 35,750 mt, the Marine Reliance has an overall length of 571 feet, molded breadth of 98 feet and molded design draft of 27 feet. Her service speed is 18 knots.

The Marine Reliance is currently engaged in two-way trade between the U.S. and Japan carry Nissan cars. On her maiden voyage earlier this year, she delivered 4,000 Nissan cars from Japan to the Port of Newark, N.J.

M E R C A N D I A N PACIFIC II D a n y a r d During the second quarter of 1987, Danyard A/S of Fredrikshavn, Denmark, delivered the Mercandian Pacific II, the first in a series of four roll-on/roll-off (RO/RO) ships for the Mercandia Shipping Group.

The new vessel, which is chartered to Vencaribe, Caracas, is the largest vessel built at the Fredrikshavn yard to date.

The Mercandian Pacific II, which was renamed the Caracas just prior to her departure from Fredrikshavn, was constructed in two parts that were subsequently joined after launching.

The 14,000-dwt vessel, the largest ship so far in the Mercandia Shipping fleet, has an overall length of 537 V'a feet, with a molded breadth of 77 feet and scantling draft of 29 feet.

The total trailer length of the ship is about 9,186 feet and container capacity is 725 TEUs.

The vessel is powered by a single six-cylinder medium-speed MaK 6M 601 diesel developing 9,000 bhp and driving a Lips CP propeller at 118 rpm through a Reintjes single reduction gear. A speed of 17.5 knots was obtained in trials. The machinery is approved for unmanned operation. The engine, which is arranged to run on heavy fuel, also drives a shaft generator to meet all the ship's power requirements at sea. Powerful Lips transverse thrusters at both bow and stern ensure good shiphandling characteristics without the need for tug assistance.

The vessel is classified +1A1, General Cargo/Container/Car Carrier, RO/RO, EO by Det norske Veritas.

NORDFARER Burmeister & W a in The product/crude tanker Nordfarer was delivered in the first quarter of this year by Burmeister & Wain Skibsvaerft A/S of Copenhagen, Denmark, to her owners, Ugland-Norden. She joined four sister ships in the Ugland-Norden pool, which are engaged in the carriage of naptha, gasoline and aviation fuels.

The Nordfarer has an overall length of 750 feet, moulded breadth of 106 and a design draft of 38 feet.

She is powered by a five-cylinder, two-stroke MAN'B&W L70MCE diesel engine, which develops 10,900 bhp at 84 rpm. The engine drives a four-bladed propeller with a diameter of 23 Vi feet.

The Nordfarer is a completely new Burmeister & Wain-designed medium-sized product tanker, a 54,000/84,000-dwt product/crude tanker, the CPT54E type, which has a capacity of 91,000 cubic meters.

With the delivery of three of these ships last year, B&W achieved a share of 20 percent of the 1986 newbuilding market for medium-sized product tankers.

The CPT54E can carry 50,000 tons of cargo at 13 knots on about 20 ts/day (including 50 percent sea margin). The clean tanks of the ship—no stiffeners or heating coils and double-skinned hull all round— together with stainless steel pipes, deep-well pumps and epoxy coatings, give the vessel the flexibility needed to work in the emerging product trades, especially those derived from source-located export refineries.

In the CPT54E type tanker, the ship is designed so that cargo is completely discharged from tanks, pumps, pipes and valves. All cargo piping systems have the means to blow the lines, and to drain the contents into slop tanks, to shore or back to the cargo tanks.

The vessel can handle and carry up to 14 different cargoes. The cargo is controlled by a loading computer, with automatic readings of cargo levels and temperatures.

N O R S U N N KK Nippon Kokan Kaisha (NKK) of Tokyo, Japan, delivered the passenger/ car ferry Norsun to her owners, Hollandse Vrachtvaart Maatschappij, early in the second quarter of this year.

The Norsun has a length of 588 feet, breadth of about 83 feet and draft of 20 feet. She is powered by four Wartsila-Sulzer ZAL40 medium- speed engines, producing 26,100 bhp in a "father and son" arrangement.

The 31,000-grt Norsun is capable of carrying up to 1,250 passengers, 850 cars and 590-foot by 40-foot trailers or unit loads. She is equipped with cargo access equipment designed by Kvaerner Ships Equipment AB of Gothenburg, Sweden, and supplied by MGFE, a Kvaerner co-operation partner in Japan.

Operating on the North Seas Ferries overnight route between Hull, U.K. and Rotterdam, Holland, the Norsun features several major technical advances, including a fullerthan- usual hull form—dictated by a need for extra freight space but with contraints imposed by the limitations of the Port of Hull's lock system.

With the current trends for improved fuel efficiency, the form was developed around the need to accommodate what are reported to be the largest propellers possible within this type of arrangement.

The propellers were supplied by Ka- MeWa.

The Norsun arrived in Amsterdam at the beginning of May from Japan with 800 Nissan cars. Her maiden voyage with passengers took place on May 12 from Rotterdam.

P A N D A 3 . M a j The Rijeka Shipyard of 3. Maj Shipbuilding delivered the 83,700- dwt oil tanker/chemical carrier Panda to her owners, the East Asiatic Company of Denmark, during the third quarter of this year.

The Panda is intended for the carriage of crude oil, oil products and chemicals. She was constructed in accordance with the rules of Det norske Veritas for the class + 1A1 Tanker for Oil (Cow, Inert) EO bis Tanker for Chemicals.

Launched on March 24th of this year, the Panda is 748 V2 feet long, has a molded breadth of 105 V2 feet and a design draft of 41 feet. She is powered by a 3. Maj-Sulzer 6RTA62, super-charged, single-acting, two-stroke diesel engine, which is directly coupled to a fixed-pitch propeller. The engine has a maximum continuous rating of 8,330 kw at 85 rpm. Her service speed is 14 knots at her design draft at 90 percent of mcr and 15 percent sea margin.

The Panda has extremely flexible and extensive loading capability, which is achieved through the use of deep-well pumps installed in each of her cargo tanks. Additionally, her uncluttered cargo tanks keep cleaning time to a minimum, reducing both labor costs and time.

PRESIDENT GARFIELD M i t s u i During the first quarter of this year, the 44,966-dwt containership President Garfield was delivered by Mitsui Engineering & Shipbuilding Co., Ltd.'s Tamano Works to Lykes Bros. Steamship Co., Inc. Mitsui also delivered the President Arthur and President Buchanan, sister ships of the Garfield, to Lykes Bros.

The three 3,025 TEU containerships, along with the sister ship President Harding built by Mitsubishi, are all under long term charter to American President Lines.

The 39,132-gt President Garfield has an overall length of 849 V2 feet, breadth of 106 feet and full load draft of 39 feet.

Her main propulsion engine is a Mitsui-MAN B&W 9L80MCE diesel with a maximum continuous rating of 28,800 bhp at 83 rpm. On her sea trials, the President Garfield obtained a speed of more than 23 knots.

One of the advantages offered by the President Garfield, as well as her sister ships, is that containers can be stowed on her upper deck above the engine room, increasing container capacity.

Other advantages offered by the President Garfield's design include: the addition of cell guides on the upper deck (where hatch covers are absent above the engine room and steering gear room) for efficient cargo handling; a manually operated side port door on the starboard side of the engine affords easy access for loading supplies on board; and a duct keel is arranged within her double bottom tank to facilitate maintenance and inspection of piping and valves inside the double bottom.

The ABS-classed President Garfield carries a maximum complement of 42.

(RO/RO) vessel Repubblica Di Venezia was delivered during the third quarter of this year by the Marghera Shipyard of Fincantieri to the Grimaldi Group. She has a capacity of 4,000 medium-sized automobiles or about 950 TEUs.

The Repubblica Di Venezia has a length between perpendiculars of 541 feet, a molded breath of 100 feet, and a design draft of 24 'A feet.

Her propulsion plant consists of a Fincantieri GMT-Sulzer diesel engine with a maximum continuous rating of 17,280 bhp at 127 rpm turning a controllable-pitch propeller of Ni-Al bronze. In addition to three Fincantieri GMT-type dieseldriven generators, she is equipped with shaft-driven and emergency diesel-driven generators. Propulsion machinery control is automatic from the bridge with unmanned central control station arranged in the machinery space.

Designed to offer an operative flexibility for different types of cargo along with accommodating 56 passengers in cabins, the vessel has a quarter stern ramp-door, arranged at approximately 39 degrees to allow access from a lateral quay and through a door located aft. The single- propeller type ship, with engine arranged aft, has transversal watertight bulkheads and two longitudinal bulkheads in order to fulfill the compartmentation requirements for passenger and cargo vessels. Classification is Registro Italiano Navale/ American Bureau of Shipping.

At present, the RO/RO is being employed in the Brazilian/Mediterranean to carry cars, containers and various heavy rolling cargo.

R O D N E Y M . D A V IS Todd Pacific The Aegis guided-missile frigate Rodney M. Davis (FFG-60) was commissioned by the Navy at the U.S. Naval Station in Long Beach, Calif., early in May of this year. The frigate was built by Todd Pacific Shipyards' San Pedro yard.

The Oliver Hazard Perry Class frigate is 453 feet long, with a beam of 45 feet and a navigational draft of 24!/2 feet. She has a full load displacement of about 3,900 tons, and Rodney M. Davis is powered by two GE LM-2500 marine gas turbine engines. She is able to reach speeds of more than 28 knots.

Manned by a crew of 152 enlisted men and 11 officers, the Rodney M.

Davis's primary mission, as well as her sister ships of the Oliver Hazard Perry Class, is to serve as an ocean escort with amphibious task forces, underway replenishment groups and convoys. She is equipped with surface-to-air and surface-to-surface missile systems, torpedoes and a 76-mm gun. The frigate is also equipped to operate two antisubmarine helicopters, which extend both her attack range and over-thehorizon detection capability.

S E A - L A N D A N C H O R A GE Bay S h i p b u i l d i ng The 710-foot containership Sea- Land Anchorage was delivered in September by Bay Shipbuilding Corporation, Sturgeon Bay, Wis., to her owners, Sea-Land Service. She is the first of three sister vessels to be delivered this year by Bay Shipbuilding.

The Anchorage is powered by a slow-speed 7L70MC MAN B&W diesel engine supplied by Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co., Ltd., which drives a Kawasaki controllable pitch propeller. The fuel efficient seven-cylinder engine is capable of developing over 22,000 bhp.

The vessel has a beam of 78 feet and design draft of 30 feet.

The ship's propulsion plant is designed to operate unattended ACCU, and all plant functions are monitored by Siemens computer automation equipment. Electrical power to the ship is provided through two Wartsila main AC diesel generators, each rated at 2,000 kw and two Wartsila auxiliary diesel generators rated at 1,000 kw each.

An emergency diesel generator is also provided by Caterpillar.

The Sea-Land Anchorage will be capable of carying over 700 FEU containers of cargo. The ship, which has seven cargo holds, also has the capacity to carry a variety of refrigerated containers in specially equipped cargo holds and at designated areas above deck. The ship is capable of carrying 20-, 35- or 40- foot containers. To facilitate the storage and securing of containers above deck, the ship is equipped with stacking towers and hydraulically operated hinged frames which rotate from a vertical to horizontal position, securely locking in each layer of containers quickly.

The ship is specially strengthened to serve in Alaska's severe weather.

The forecastle has a substantial breakwater built to protect the forward containers. Deck machinery is enclosed from the weather at the bow and at stern, providing a weathertight closure for the mooring of the ship. The ship is also equipped with Omnithruster bow and stern thrusters which greatly enhance its maneuverability.

S O V E R E I G N OF THE SEAS C h a n t i e r s d e I ' A t l a n t i q ue With her anticipated delivery to Royal Caribbean Cruise Line on December 23, the 74,000-grt luxury liner Sovereign of the Seas will become the world's largest cruise ship.

Built by Alsthom's Chantiers de I'Atlantique shipyard in St. Nazaire, France, the Sovereign is 874 feet long, 106 feet wide and has a draft of 25 feet. She will be able to carry more than 2,600 passengers on 14 decks in her 722 outside and 416 inside staterooms, and will be complemented by a crew of 750 officers, deck, engine and international hotel personnel.

Powered by four nine-cylinder 7,425-hp Pielstick diesel engines, she is able to obtain speeds of more than 21 knots. The Sovereign features two 1,500-hp KaMeWa bowthrusters and Willi Becker rudders for maneuverability. Sperry stabilizers, a Vibrachoc main engine silencer and Rockment cabin partitioning and bulkheads add to passenger and crew comfort.

The liner features a wide array of technologically advanced electronic equipment and systems, including: a Racal Decca MNS 2000 integrated nautical system; Taiyo TF 733 facsimile receiver; Atlas radars; Anschuetz gyrocompass, autopilot and magnetic compass; Norcontrol engine room automation; KaMeWa propulsion machinery remote control; and Flakt Marine heating/air conditioning plants.

The ship's service electrical power is supplied by six Wartsila auxiliary generators, producing 13,000 watts.

Other equipment featured will include Alfa-Laval evaporator and lube/fuel oil centrifugal separator systems and an EVAC sewage system.

A unique feature of the new luxury liner is the Centrum, a central lobby area spanning a height of five decks. The Centrum is highlighted by glass-wall elevators, sweeping staircases, fountains and plants.

The Centrum connects many of the ship's public rooms, including the shopping area, lounges, bars, conference center and cafe.

In all, the Sovereign offers two 650-passenger restaurants, six lounges, 16 shops, one casino and two pools.

TRANSSHELF W a r t s i la The Turku Shipyard of Wartsila Marine Industries, Inc. of Finland, delivered the 567-foot, heavylift vessel Transshelf to her Soviet owner, V/O Sudoimport, during the end of the first quarter of this year.

The Transshelf is powered by two Wartsila-Vasa 18V32 type engines with an output of 6,750 kw each.

The engines are connected by Valmet Rautpohja reduction gears to two Escher Wyss controllable-pitch propellers.

Electric power generation is provided by two Stromberg shaft generators and two Wartsila Vasa 4R22HF auxiliary engines.

The heavylift vessel can lift and transport on deck jackup and semisubmersible oil drilling platforms weighing up to 20,000 tons. The vessel can also be used for docking ships.

The Transself can be submerged by means of water-filled ballast tanks to a depth of about 69 feet, after which the platform is towed above the submerged deck. The ballast tanks are then emptied pneumatically and the loaded vessel rises to transport level.

Onboard there is a flexible computerized interactive management assisting system developed in cooperation with Wartsila and a Dutch company. This computer system can be used for designing and preparing future transports and by using real-time measurements for monitoring and analyzing stability, stresses and movements of the ship during loading, transportation and unloading, also paying attention to the varying environmental conditions.

W A S P (LHD-1) I n g a l ls The 40,500-ton amphibious as- sault ship Wasp (LHD-1), the lead ship of her new class, was christened for the U.S. Navy at Litton's Ingalls Shipbuilding Division in Pascagoula, Miss., in mid-September of this year.

The Wasp will have the primary mission of embarkation, deployment, landing and support of a Marine landing force. The Wasp is 844 feet long, with a beam of 106 feet.

Two Westinghouse steam propulsion plants, developing a combined 70,000 horsepower, will drive the ship at speeds of more than 20 knots.

In carrying out this mission, LHD 1 will mount an assault of helicopters, landing craft and other amphibious vehicles in various combination.

The Wasp Class is specifically designed to accommodate the air cushion landing craft (LCAC) and Harrier II (AV-8B) STO/VL (Short Take Off/Vertical Landing) jets, which will provide close-in air support of the assault force. The ship will also accommodate the full range of Navy and Marine Corps helicopters, conventional landing craft and amphibious vehicles.

LHD 1 will have more than 22,000 feet of vehicle space, and 100,000 cubic feet of cargo space. Accommodations for nearly 3,000 troops and crew members (the crew numbers 98 officers and 983 enlisted personnel) are provided in the ship's living areas. For combat support, as well as humanitarian missions, LHD 1 will have six fully equipped operating rooms and a 600-bed hospital.

The new ship will join the Navy fleet in early 1989.

Y A M A T A K A M A RU H i t a c h i Zosen The Yamataka Maru, a 38,217- dwt ultra-rationalized, high-speed and large-sized containership was delivered during the fall of last year by Hitachi Zosen's Innoshima Works to its owner, Yamashita- Shinnihon Steamship Co., Ltd., of Japan.

The advanced containership, which carries 2,500 TEU containers (stacked three high on the deck, with 236 refrigerated containers), is capable of carrying automobiles and hazardous cargo such as radioactive substances in containers.

The Yamataka Maru is equipped with an automatic radar plotting aid and various automatic navigational equipment for energy and manpower savings. She also has a bulbous bow to decrease fuel consumption and a stern bulb to reduce hull vibration.

The 42,145-gt vessel has an overall length of 754 feet, depth of 71 feet and breadth of 106 feet. She is powered by a Hitachi Zosen-MAN B&W 9K80MC diesel engine rated at 32,300 hp at 91 rpm. Her trial speed was over 25 knots.

Maritime Reporter Magazine, page 10,  Dec 1987

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