Safety And The Marine Environment

Years of planning will come to fruition with the 1980 SNAME Spring Meeting and STAR Symposium. This has all taken place under a Steering Committee headed by George Uberti of National Steel and Shipbuilding, prominent in the Society's San Diego Section, and by a papers committee headed by Rear Adm. William M. Benkert, USCG (ret.).

Registration begins on June 3, and papers will be presented June 4-6 at the Hotel del Coronado, Coronado, Calif., minutes from downtown San Diego.

The theme of the symposium is "Safety and The Marine Environment," and there will be 19 papers plus an open forum addressing this concept. This is the fifth STAR meeting of the Society (STAR stands for Ship Technology And Research). These meetings were created to present papers that report current research and development, not necessarily conclusive in themselves.

The meeting will open on June 4 with a plenary session and a general overview entitled "Marine Safety and the Environment— The Challenge of the '80's." The overview, which will be presented by authors R.D. Leis, Admiral Benkert and Rear Adm. Randolph W. King, USN (ret.) will review a summary of a five-year "R.D.T. and E. Plan for Marine Safety," which was sponsored by the U.S. Coast Guard and prepared by the Batelle Memorial Institute.

After the keynote, the meeting will settle down to specific subjects, to include important papers by such well-known authors as Manley St. Denis, Susan L. Bales, Daniel Hoffman, William Cummins, and Haruzo Eda.

The topics will be as varied as the backgrounds of the above-mentioned authors, with heavy emphasis on maritime safety, much of it from the viewpoint of the U.S.

Coast Guard. In dual sessions, for instance, papers on Hull Girder Response, Ship Collision Damage Evaluation, and Hull Strength, which are considerations in modern naval architecture, will be delivered opposite papers on Harbor Navigation Safety, The Impact of Controlled Traffic Lanes and Port Access Routes, the latter three giving the attendee the latest thinking on vessel traffic control. There will be many more such presentations.

At the conclusion of the meeting, all registrants will gather for a final paper by Richards T. Miller, SNAME's vice presidenttechnical and research, and an open forum on safety headed by a panel of notable experts in the field.

During the meeting, a full and entertaining social program is planned beginning with a reception on Tuesday evening, June 3, and climaxed by a gala California fiesta on Thursday, June 5.

Technical Papers Paper No. 1 — "Marine Safety and the Environment — The Challenge of the 80's," Leis/Benkert/King.

Synopsis—This opening paper sets the scene CALENDAR OF EVENTS 1 9 8 0 SPRING M E E T I N G / S T A R SYMPOSIUM HOTEL del CORONADO Tuesday, June 3, 1 9 80 1:00 p.m. Registration: Conservatory 5:00 p.m. Registration closes for the day 5:00 p.m. Early Bird Reception: Garden Patio Wednesday, June 4, 1 9 80 7:30 a.m. Authors/Moderators Briefing: Hanover 8:00 a.m. Registration continues: Conservatory 8:00 a.m. Orientation Breakfast: Ballroom 9:15 a.m. Technical Sessions: Regent Hall 9:30 a.m. San Diego Tour (including lunch) 12:30 p.m. Informal Luncheon: Ballroom 1:45 p.m. Technical Sessions: Oxford/Empress 6:00 p.m. President's Reception: Garden Patio Thursday, June 5, 1 9 80 7:30 a.m. Authors/Moderators Breakfast: Hanover 8:30 a.m. Registration continues: Conservatory 9:00 a.m. Optional short tours available 9:00 a.m. Technical Sessions: Oxford/Empress 11:30 a.m. Reception: Poolside 12:15 p.m. President's Luncheon: Ballroom 2:00 p.m. Technical Sessions: Oxford/Empress 6:30 p.m. California Festival Prelude: Promenade 8:00 p.m. California Festival — Dinner, Show and Dancing: Ballroom Friday, June 6, 1 9 80 9:00 a.m. Technical Sessions: Regent Hall 11:15 a.m. Closing General Session: Regent Hall and the theme for the 1980 Spring Meeting/ STAR Symposium. Included is a summary of the five-year RDT&E Plan for Marine Safety" prepared by Batelle Institute for the U.S. Coast Guard.

Paper No. 2 — "Tanker Safety and Pollution Prevention — How Much is Enough?" Ireland.

Synopsis — Safety, ecology and economics in tanker design and operation are examined and the interplay of these dependent variables evaluated.

Paper No. 3 — "On the Statistical Description of Seaways of Moderate Severity," St.


Synopsis — The sea and the ship — a current view on the engineering evaluation of survivability with proposals for improvements therein. The statistical representation of nonlinear seaways is discussed and a practical technique for obtaining such a representation is offered.

Paper No. 4 — "Hull Girder Response to Extreme Bending Moments," Billingsley.

Synopsis — The inherent deficiencies of traditional section modulus calculations once buckling of elements of the hull girder occurs under extreme loading are discussed.

A technique for more accurately determining the effects of individual plate buckling on the integrity of the hull girder is presented, together with the supportive computer program (FLEXSM).

Paper No. 5 — "Evaluation of the Safety of Ship Navigation in Harbors," Atkins/ Bertsche.

Synopsis — This paper presents a methodology for measuring the safety of navigation in harbor waterways from which can be derived the ability of specific ships to navigate safely in existing or anticipated harbors. Factors considered include ship size and controllability, typical pilot-helmsman performance, channel characteristics and associated aids to navigation as well as environmental conditions (i.e., visibility, wind, current).

Paper No. 6 — "Critical Evaluation of Low-Energy Ship Collision Damage Theories and Design Methodologies," Giannotti/Van Mater/Jones.

Synopsis — This paper represents a step forward in the development of reliable methods for designing hull structures to resist low energy collisions. Data sources include model experiments and full-scale information obtained from ship casualty records. The assumptions made by existing theories are assessed, and the collision energy absorption mechanisms are ranked.

Paper No. 7 — "Impact and Feasibility of Controlled Port Approach Traffic Lanes," Frankel/Johnsen.

Synopsis — This paper discusses the operational, physical, legal and safety aspects of controlling ship movements in port approach lanes, both inshore and offshore. A risk analysis and operational impact model are included. An evaluation of traffic spacing, lane separation and lane width is presented together with a review of navigational aid requirements.

Paper No. 8 — "Probabilistic Design for Ship Hull Structural Strength," Daidola/ Basar.

Synopsis — Conventional methods of designing for hull strength make use of accumulated experience, essentially expressed in the form of semiempirical formulae and safety factors. With a new ship type, the resultant lack of "accumulated experience" on vessels of similar size and function makes it prudent to investigate new approaches to longitudinal strength design in an attempt to reduce the uncertainties.

Paper No. 9 — "Coast Guard Development of Port Access Routes," Bannan.

Synopsis—The Ports and Waterways Safety Act (1978) directs that the Secretary of Transportation (Coast Guard) shall provide safe access routes for the movement of vessel traffic proceeding to or from ports, and shall designate necessary fairways and traffic separation schemes. The paramount right of navigation is recognized, but reconciliation as practicable with other reasonable uses is urged.

Paper No. 10 — "Safety Challenges in the Fishing Fleet," Adee.

Synopsis — The U.S. fishing fleet employs an estimated 120,000 commercial fishermen and is expected to expand further, incident to the 200-mile limit. An industry of this size, confronted by the sea's severe operating environment, faces many safety challenges. Hazards discussed in this paper include fire, impaired stability and personal work-related accidents.

Paper No. 11—"Control and Guidance . . .", Hoffman/Armen.

Synopsis — A fundamental of the seagoing experience is the interplay between environmental excitation (wind and wave), dynamics/ response of the affected vessel, resulting loads, and ultimate structural integrity. Recent advances in environmental loading predictive techniques have led to more rational answers to the inherent safety problems.

Conventional shipping draws on an experience bank, but assuring adequate safety in the newer, less orthodox floating structures under limiting weather conditions presents a significant challenge.

Paper No. 12—"Life Safety Approach . . .", Decarteret/Lemley/Sheehan.

Synopsis — The life safety risks that fishermen face are many and varied, as are the designs of the vessels they operate. This paper presents a series of suggested voluntary practices in the operation, design and construction of fishing vessels that may lessen the risks. Particular emphasis is placed on fire protection, on lifesaving appliances and on certain practices that could prove beneficial.

Paper No. 13 — "Seakeeping in Ship Operations," Comstock/Bales/Keane.

Synopsis — Four types of seakeeping intelligence data systems, Optimum Track Ship Routing (OTSR), Tactical Operations Ship Routing (TOSR), Ship Survivability in Extreme Weather (SSEW) and Heavy Weather Operator Guidance (HWOG), can be useful to the operator. This paper focuses on Heavy Weather Operator Guidance whereby quantitative information is provided to the operator on the behavior of his ship under a set of arbitrary sea conditions as well as guidance on avoiding severe motions.

Paper No. 14—"Influence of Hull Form . . . ", Schmitke.

Synopsis—In this paper, the factors with primary influence on ship rolling are studied parametrically using recently developed and validated prediction methods. Factors include hull form, bilge keel and rudder size, metacentric height, and active stabilization. For each ship configuration, predictions are made for a range of speed and sea conditions. Results are presented in graphical form so that the effect of each parameter on rolling may be readily assessed.

Paper No. 15 — "Extreme Value and Rare Occurrence Wave Statistics . . .", Cummins/ Bales.

Synopsis — The existing ocean environment data bases, though much improved in recent years, are still inadequate in several respects.

Sufficient information for the systematic, scientific design of new ships or the analysis of operational failures is lacking.

Consequently, in 1975 the U.S. Navy initiated a project to remedy this deficiency by hindcasting and systematically collating available data collected over a 20-year period.

The final product will be a new climatology of wind and waves for the Northern Hemisphere. Some initial results, concentrating on extreme and rare wave occurrences, are presented in this paper. The statistics offer substantially improved capability and are so presented as to facilitate adoption into existing procedures for analyzing performance and structural integrity.

Paper No. 16 — "Proposed Shipboard Ma- neuvering Data," Landsburg/Card/Knierim/ von Breitenfeld/Eda.

Synopsis—This paper describes the concepts developed by SNAME Panel H-10 (Controllability) for standardized formats designed to present information on a ship's maneuvering characteristics and capabilities. The information is intended for the practical use of officers and pilots in handling a particular ship. Proposed data acquisition methods will be presented, together with samples of the anticipated end products. The Panel's proposals for standardized maneuvering information are still in draft form, and the authors will welcome comments and criticism thereon.

Paper No. 17 — "Status Report on the Application of Stress . . .", Chazal/Cojeen/ Lindemann/Maclean.

Synopsis — A number of projects are underway worldwide, aimed at the development of stress and motion monitoring systems designed to assist masters and deck officers in the safe operation of their ships. This paper provides a status report on four such efforts of diverse nature in which the U.S. Coast Guard is participating. Practical aspects of hardware, data presentation and user skill requirements are also addressed.

Paper No. 18—"Nature of Combustion . . . " , Hansen/Baham/Porricelli.

Synopsis — Existing federal, state and municipal air quality laws are regulations govern emissions from large plants, but there are clear signs that smaller industrial plants will soon be brought under the rules. The lowered limits may well be construed as applying to power plants on ships operating in coastal waters or in port. New regulations applying to ships are already being promulgated in certain port areas. This paper includes a treatise on shipboard combustion, a survey of port area emission regulations, a comparison of total annual emissions in each of 17 major U.S. ports with the estimated contribution of vessels visiting those ports, an assessment of the need for compliance standards with an estimate of the associated costs, and recommendations for interim local variances to be followed by national regulations for ship emission control.

Paper No. 19 — "Technical and Research Program . . .", Miller.

Special Activities Early Bird Reception, Garden Patio, 5:00- 8:00 p.m., Tuesday, June 3. For those early arrivals who wish to meet old friends and make new ones, a no-host cocktail party will take place.

San Diego Tour, 9:30 a.m.-3:00 p.m., Wednesday, June 4. An interesting tour of the Plaza of Old San Diego, including a visit to the tine selection of shops in the Bazaar del Mundo, followed by lunch at a famous San Diego restaurant. The afternoon will include a drive along the city's exciting waterfront, and a spectacular view of the Pacific Ocean from historic Point Loma Lighthouse.

Informal Luncheon, Ballroom, 12:30 p.m.- 1:30 p.m., Wednesday, June 4. Convenient and informal buffet luncheon in the hotel for members, spouses, and guests.

President's Reception, Garden Patio, 6:00 p.m.-8:00 p.m., Wednesday, June 4. Society president Lester Rosenblatt will be host to all registrants and their guests at this traditional event in a Mexican fiesta setting.

Complimentary refreshments will be served.

President's Luncheon, Ballroom, 12:15 p.m.-l:30 p.m., Thursday, June 5. A general reception will be held poolside prior to this traditional luncheon. Cash bar service will be available. Society president Lester Rosenblatt will officiate. Featured will be the presentation of the new Spring Meeting Paper Award, and an address by Mr. Rosenblatt.

California Festival, 6:30 p.m.-l:00 a.m., Thursday, June 5. A gala fiesta commencing with cocktails on the Promenade Deck of the hotel, followed by dinner, entertainment, and dancing in the ballroom. The relaxed, friendly, informal atmosphere so indigenous to southern California and neighboring Mexico will prevail throughout the evening.

Dress is informal.

Maritime Reporter Magazine, page 44,  May 1980

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